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Hur ska vi hyra? - En genomgång av de nya reglerna mot svarthandel med hyreskontrakt

Albinsson, Martin LU (2019) JURM02 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den första oktober 2019 infördes med SFS 2019:523 en lång rad lagändringar i hyreslagen. Till de viktigaste ändringarna hör 1) kriminalisering av köpare av hyreskontrakt, 2) skärpta straff för försäljning av hyreskontrakt, 3) kriminalisering av andrahandsuthyrning om hyresgästen både saknar tillstånd från hyresvärd eller hyresnämnd och tar ut ett överpris och 4) att hyresrätter inte längre kan bytas mot bostadsrätter och villor om inte hyresvärden går med på bytet.

Motivet bakom lagändringarna var att stävja svarthandeln med hyreskontrakt och höga andrahandshyror för att åstadkomma en rörligare hyresmarknad och bättre hyresvillkor. Uppsatsen beskriver lagändringarna och försöker utröna vilka konsekvenser de kan komma att få. För att... (More)
Den första oktober 2019 infördes med SFS 2019:523 en lång rad lagändringar i hyreslagen. Till de viktigaste ändringarna hör 1) kriminalisering av köpare av hyreskontrakt, 2) skärpta straff för försäljning av hyreskontrakt, 3) kriminalisering av andrahandsuthyrning om hyresgästen både saknar tillstånd från hyresvärd eller hyresnämnd och tar ut ett överpris och 4) att hyresrätter inte längre kan bytas mot bostadsrätter och villor om inte hyresvärden går med på bytet.

Motivet bakom lagändringarna var att stävja svarthandeln med hyreskontrakt och höga andrahandshyror för att åstadkomma en rörligare hyresmarknad och bättre hyresvillkor. Uppsatsen beskriver lagändringarna och försöker utröna vilka konsekvenser de kan komma att få. För att sätta lagändringarna i ett sammanhang görs också en historisk beskrivning av hur de olika regelverken för hyresrätter och bostadsrätter utvecklats. Vid sidan om detta görs en jämförande studie med regelverket för andrahandsuthyrning av bostadsrätter.

För att förstå hur hyresmarknaden fungerar och varför lagändringen alls behövs företas också en kort redogörelse över bruksvärdessystemet som sätts i relation till ett system med marknadshyror. Det är till stor del på grund av glappet mellan bruksvärdeshyra och marknadshyra som en svart marknad för hyresrätter kan finnas.

Uppsatsen kommer fram till att problem med handel med svartkontrakt och oskäliga andrahandshyror alltid kommer att uppstå på hyresmarknader med bruksvärdeshyra och bostadsbrist, men att lösa problemen med svarthandel och höga andrahandshyror genom att införa marknadshyror skulle ske till ett bokstavligt talat högt pris för hyresgästerna.

Lagändringen försöker begränsa den svarta marknaden för hyresrätter genom både civilrättsliga konsekvenser och utökad kriminalisering. Även om dessa åtgärder delvis kan vara nödvändiga med nuvarande hyressättningssystem är de i delar för hårda, och riskerar i delar också att bli verkningslösa. De problem med handel av svartkontrakt och utnyttjande av andrahandshyresgäster som finns i Sverige löses kanske inte bäst med fler inskränkningar på hyresrättens område och ökad kriminalisering utan med ett utökat byggande av hyresrätter. (Less)
Abstract
On 1 October 2019 SFS 2019:523 was entered into action, containing a long
list of legal changes in the Swedish Rent Act (Hyreslagen). Among the more prominent changes were i) the criminalization of buyers of a rental contract, ii) harsher punishment for selling such contracts, iii) criminalization of tenants who both sublet the apartment without permission from the landlord or the Rental Board and charges an excessive rent, and iv) that rental apartments are no longer eligible for bartering if the current tenants haven’t yet lived there for at least a year. To barter a rental contract with some kindof owned housing – something the rental boards previously could approve – is no longer possible without the landlord’s permission. The purpose... (More)
On 1 October 2019 SFS 2019:523 was entered into action, containing a long
list of legal changes in the Swedish Rent Act (Hyreslagen). Among the more prominent changes were i) the criminalization of buyers of a rental contract, ii) harsher punishment for selling such contracts, iii) criminalization of tenants who both sublet the apartment without permission from the landlord or the Rental Board and charges an excessive rent, and iv) that rental apartments are no longer eligible for bartering if the current tenants haven’t yet lived there for at least a year. To barter a rental contract with some kindof owned housing – something the rental boards previously could approve – is no longer possible without the landlord’s permission. The purpose behindthese changes was to hinder the black housing market for rental contractsand to combat other forms of exploitation involving rental contracts in orderto create a more fair rental market. This essay describes the legal changesand attempts to determine what possible consequences these changes maybring.

A historical description of the various regulations concerning rental
apartments and cooperative apartments is also made to put the current
reform into context. In order to explain how the rental market in Sweden
works and why the legal changes that are the topic of this essay were
deemed necessary, a short exposition on the principles of the utility value system (bruksvärdesprincipen) is put in relation to a system where market prices are allowed. The tension between these two rent setting systems is part of what makes up the black housing market. The essay reaches the conclusion that a black market involving rental contracts and unreasonable subletting rents always will exist in a rental market with housing shortages when the utility value system is applied.

This reform tries to combat the phenomenon through criminal and civil
sanctions which sometimes become excessive. The buyer of a rental contract for an apartment sometimes acts out of a pressing need for solving his or her housing problem – a fact that has been inadequately addressed according to my assessment of the new legislation.

One alternative solution to the black market problem is market prices on
rental apartments. However, such a solution comes at a high price for many tenants who no longer will be able to afford to stay in their current homes. The problems with a black rental housing market and exploitation of tenants who sublease their apartment might not be best solved with further restrictions on rental apartments and additional criminalization, but with expanded construction of rental apartments. (Less)
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author
Albinsson, Martin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
How to rent - A review of the latest legislation against the black house rental market
course
JURM02 20192
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Boenderätt, hyresrätt, processrätt
language
Swedish
id
9000457
date added to LUP
2020-02-04 09:12:25
date last changed
2020-02-04 09:12:25
@misc{9000457,
  abstract     = {On 1 October 2019 SFS 2019:523 was entered into action, containing a long
list of legal changes in the Swedish Rent Act (Hyreslagen). Among the more prominent changes were i) the criminalization of buyers of a rental contract, ii) harsher punishment for selling such contracts, iii) criminalization of tenants who both sublet the apartment without permission from the landlord or the Rental Board and charges an excessive rent, and iv) that rental apartments are no longer eligible for bartering if the current tenants haven’t yet lived there for at least a year. To barter a rental contract with some kindof owned housing – something the rental boards previously could approve – is no longer possible without the landlord’s permission. The purpose behindthese changes was to hinder the black housing market for rental contractsand to combat other forms of exploitation involving rental contracts in orderto create a more fair rental market. This essay describes the legal changesand attempts to determine what possible consequences these changes maybring.

A historical description of the various regulations concerning rental
apartments and cooperative apartments is also made to put the current
reform into context. In order to explain how the rental market in Sweden
works and why the legal changes that are the topic of this essay were
deemed necessary, a short exposition on the principles of the utility value system (bruksvärdesprincipen) is put in relation to a system where market prices are allowed. The tension between these two rent setting systems is part of what makes up the black housing market. The essay reaches the conclusion that a black market involving rental contracts and unreasonable subletting rents always will exist in a rental market with housing shortages when the utility value system is applied.

This reform tries to combat the phenomenon through criminal and civil
sanctions which sometimes become excessive. The buyer of a rental contract for an apartment sometimes acts out of a pressing need for solving his or her housing problem – a fact that has been inadequately addressed according to my assessment of the new legislation.

One alternative solution to the black market problem is market prices on
rental apartments. However, such a solution comes at a high price for many tenants who no longer will be able to afford to stay in their current homes. The problems with a black rental housing market and exploitation of tenants who sublease their apartment might not be best solved with further restrictions on rental apartments and additional criminalization, but with expanded construction of rental apartments.},
  author       = {Albinsson, Martin},
  keyword      = {Boenderätt,hyresrätt,processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hur ska vi hyra? - En genomgång av de nya reglerna mot svarthandel med hyreskontrakt},
  year         = {2019},
}