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Rätts(o)säkerheten i nya gymnasielagen: En undersökning av utformningen och migrationsdomstolarnas tillämpning av nya gymnasielagens datumrekvisit i relation till viljeyttringar att ansöka om asyl

Roos, Anders LU (2019) JURM02 20192
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Nya gymnasielagen (16 f § begränsningslagen) skapades som en gottgörande åtgärd i form av en ny möjlighet till uppehållstillstånd för vissa ensamkommande barn som flytt till Sverige under hösten 2015. Mycket kritik har kommit att riktas mot den på grund av dess bristfälliga beredning och utformning. Ett avgörande rekvisit i nya gymnasielagen är att en sökandes första asylansökan ska ha registrerats hos Migrationsverket senast den 24 november 2015. Enligt förarbetena och Migrationsverkets rättsliga ställningstagande kan dock en tidigare avgiven viljeyttring om att ansöka om asyl användas som ett fiktivt registreringsdatum, vilket inte framkommer i lagtexten.

Uppsatsen granskar, utifrån ett rättssäkerhets- och legalitetsperspektiv,... (More)
Nya gymnasielagen (16 f § begränsningslagen) skapades som en gottgörande åtgärd i form av en ny möjlighet till uppehållstillstånd för vissa ensamkommande barn som flytt till Sverige under hösten 2015. Mycket kritik har kommit att riktas mot den på grund av dess bristfälliga beredning och utformning. Ett avgörande rekvisit i nya gymnasielagen är att en sökandes första asylansökan ska ha registrerats hos Migrationsverket senast den 24 november 2015. Enligt förarbetena och Migrationsverkets rättsliga ställningstagande kan dock en tidigare avgiven viljeyttring om att ansöka om asyl användas som ett fiktivt registreringsdatum, vilket inte framkommer i lagtexten.

Uppsatsen granskar, utifrån ett rättssäkerhets- och legalitetsperspektiv, utformningen och migrationsdomstolarnas tillämpning av nya gymnasielagens datumrekvisit och viljeyttringars betydelse för rekvisitet. Uppsatsen innehåller dels en redogörelse av gällande rätt avseende nya gymnasielagen och viljeyttringar att ansöka om asyl, dels en rättsfallsundersökning av tillämpningen och tolkningen av viljeyttringars betydelse för datumrekvisitet i migrationsdomstolarna.

Rättsfallsundersökningen omfattar 127 avgöranden vid migrationsdomstolarna där nya gymnasielagen och en viljeyttring att ansöka om asyl beaktats. Resultaten av undersökningen visar tydligt att det råder oenhetlighet och inkonsekvens i rättstillämpningen vid domstolarna. I en majoritet av avgörandena tillmäter domstolarna viljeyttringar betydelse i bedömningen av datumrekvisitet. I 27 avgöranden gör migrationsdomstolarna dock motsatt tolkning, dvs. tillmäter inte viljeyttringar betydelse i bedömningen av datumrekvisitet.

Sammanställningen av domstolarnas argumentation visar att domstolarna oftast saknar motivering till varför de tillmäter viljeyttringar betydelse. I de fall detta motiveras görs det med hänvisning till förarbeten eller Migrationsverkets interna styrdokument. I de fall migrationsdomstolarna däremot inte tillmäter viljeyttringar betydelse motiveras detta utifrån att en sådan tolkning inte ryms i lagtextens ordalydelse och att en den därför skulle vara i strid med legalitetsprincipen.

Uppsatsen konstaterar avslutningsvis att själva utformningen av nya gymnasielagens datumrekvisit är en grundläggande orsak till rättsosäkerheten i tillämpningen av rekvisitet i migrationsdomstolarna. (Less)
Abstract
The migration regulation called New Law on Upper Secondary Education (nya gymnasielagen) was enacted as a compensatory measure to enable some unaccompanied children, who had applied for asylum in Sweden during the autumn of 2015, to gain temporary residence here.
However, the insufficient preparation and unclear language of the law have been much criticised. One of the main legal requirements imposed by the law is that the applicant’s first asylum application must have been registered by the Swedish Migration Agency by 24 November 2015. But according to the law’s preparatory works and internal legal guidance of the Swedish Migration Agency, an earlier manifestation of the applicant’s intent of applying for asylum (viljeyttring) can be... (More)
The migration regulation called New Law on Upper Secondary Education (nya gymnasielagen) was enacted as a compensatory measure to enable some unaccompanied children, who had applied for asylum in Sweden during the autumn of 2015, to gain temporary residence here.
However, the insufficient preparation and unclear language of the law have been much criticised. One of the main legal requirements imposed by the law is that the applicant’s first asylum application must have been registered by the Swedish Migration Agency by 24 November 2015. But according to the law’s preparatory works and internal legal guidance of the Swedish Migration Agency, an earlier manifestation of the applicant’s intent of applying for asylum (viljeyttring) can be used as a fictive date of registration. However, this is not apparent from the wording of the law.
The essay examines the contents and implementation of the law in relation to the ‘date requirement’. This examination is carried out in accordance with the legality principle and the rule of law. The essay is comprised partly of a description of applicable, relevant law in the form of the New Law on Upper Secondary Education, together with manifestations of intent of applying for asylum. The essay also contains a case study of cases where manifestations of intent have been considered by the migration courts in their determination of the law’s date requirement.
The case study includes 127 cases decided by the Migration Courts, where the New Law on Upper Secondary Education and a manifestation of intent have been referred to in the court’s judgement. The results of the study clearly show that the courts’ application of the law is inconsistent. In a majority of the examined cases, the courts rule that manifestations of intents are relevant to the judgment of the law’s date requirement. However, in 27 cases the courts have made an opposite finding, namely that manifestations of intent are irrelevant for the sake of determining whether the law’s legal date requirement has been met.
The compiled judgements show that the courts mostly do not provide reasons motivating why manifestations of intent are given relevance for the judgment of the date requirement, or do so with reference to the law’s preparatory works or the Migration Agency’s legal guidance. Conversely, when the courts in their reasoning give no relevance to the manifestations of intent, this is motivated by way of arguments that the courts consider this interpretation not to be compatible with the wording of the law and therefore in violation of the principle of legality.
Finally, the essay concludes that violation of the rule of law apparent in the courts’ application of the law’s date requirement stems from the wording of the date requirement itself. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Roos, Anders LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Rule of law in The New Law on Upper Secondary Education
course
JURM02 20192
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
förvaltningsrätt, nya gymnasielagen, rättssäkerhet, migrationsrätt, begränsningslagen
language
Swedish
id
9000553
date added to LUP
2020-02-03 10:26:38
date last changed
2020-02-03 10:26:38
@misc{9000553,
  abstract     = {The migration regulation called New Law on Upper Secondary Education (nya gymnasielagen) was enacted as a compensatory measure to enable some unaccompanied children, who had applied for asylum in Sweden during the autumn of 2015, to gain temporary residence here.
However, the insufficient preparation and unclear language of the law have been much criticised. One of the main legal requirements imposed by the law is that the applicant’s first asylum application must have been registered by the Swedish Migration Agency by 24 November 2015. But according to the law’s preparatory works and internal legal guidance of the Swedish Migration Agency, an earlier manifestation of the applicant’s intent of applying for asylum (viljeyttring) can be used as a fictive date of registration. However, this is not apparent from the wording of the law.
The essay examines the contents and implementation of the law in relation to the ‘date requirement’. This examination is carried out in accordance with the legality principle and the rule of law. The essay is comprised partly of a description of applicable, relevant law in the form of the New Law on Upper Secondary Education, together with manifestations of intent of applying for asylum. The essay also contains a case study of cases where manifestations of intent have been considered by the migration courts in their determination of the law’s date requirement.
The case study includes 127 cases decided by the Migration Courts, where the New Law on Upper Secondary Education and a manifestation of intent have been referred to in the court’s judgement. The results of the study clearly show that the courts’ application of the law is inconsistent. In a majority of the examined cases, the courts rule that manifestations of intents are relevant to the judgment of the law’s date requirement. However, in 27 cases the courts have made an opposite finding, namely that manifestations of intent are irrelevant for the sake of determining whether the law’s legal date requirement has been met.
The compiled judgements show that the courts mostly do not provide reasons motivating why manifestations of intent are given relevance for the judgment of the date requirement, or do so with reference to the law’s preparatory works or the Migration Agency’s legal guidance. Conversely, when the courts in their reasoning give no relevance to the manifestations of intent, this is motivated by way of arguments that the courts consider this interpretation not to be compatible with the wording of the law and therefore in violation of the principle of legality.
Finally, the essay concludes that violation of the rule of law apparent in the courts’ application of the law’s date requirement stems from the wording of the date requirement itself.},
  author       = {Roos, Anders},
  keyword      = {förvaltningsrätt,nya gymnasielagen,rättssäkerhet,migrationsrätt,begränsningslagen},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rätts(o)säkerheten i nya gymnasielagen: En undersökning av utformningen och migrationsdomstolarnas tillämpning av nya gymnasielagens datumrekvisit i relation till viljeyttringar att ansöka om asyl},
  year         = {2019},
}