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Forced Marriage – A “new” Crime Against Humanity?

Möller Andréewitch, Amelia LU (2020) JURM02 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes to be tried as a crime against humanity before an international court. During the Sierra Leone civil war, victims of sexual violence were often referred to as ‘bush wives’ or ‘rebel wives’. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) was the first international criminal tribunal to charge, try and convict persons for forced marriage as a crime against humanity.

The inconsistency in the legal characterisation of forced marriage as a crime against humanity either as an ‘other inhumane act’ or as sexual slavery by the SCSL, provides the framework for this thesis. The research identifies two different branches of the jurisprudence. The first branch, emerging from the Trial Chamber judgement of the... (More)
Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes to be tried as a crime against humanity before an international court. During the Sierra Leone civil war, victims of sexual violence were often referred to as ‘bush wives’ or ‘rebel wives’. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) was the first international criminal tribunal to charge, try and convict persons for forced marriage as a crime against humanity.

The inconsistency in the legal characterisation of forced marriage as a crime against humanity either as an ‘other inhumane act’ or as sexual slavery by the SCSL, provides the framework for this thesis. The research identifies two different branches of the jurisprudence. The first branch, emerging from the Trial Chamber judgement of the Prosecutor v. Brima (the AFRC case) and further developed in the Prosecutor v. Taylor (the Taylor case), reflects the conclusion that acts of forced marriage are adequately pursued as sexual slavery. The second branch, emerging from the judgement of the Appeals Chamber in the AFRC case and the judgement of the Trial Chamber in Prosecutor v. Sesay, Kallon, and Gbao (the RUF case), demanded further conviction under ‘other inhumane acts’ in order to capture the entire wrongdoing of acts of forced marriage.

The research explores potential underlying causes for the conflicting case law. These causes are linked to the principle of legality and the tension of the law as it is (lex lata) and the law as it ought to be (lex feranda). The research makes an attempt to question whether the crime of ‘forced marriage’ has reached the necessary level of recognition for it to be considered an international crime. Whether the phenomenon of ‘forced marriage’ fall under the definition of sexual slavery or under ‘other inhumane acts’ remains uncertain. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Tvångsäktenskap är ett av de nyaste brotten som har prövats som brott mot
mänskligheten vid en internationell domstol. Under inbördeskriget i Sierra Leone kallades offer för sexuellt våld ofta för ‘bush wives’ eller för ‘rebel wives’. Specialdomstolen för Sierra Leone (SCSL) var den första internationella brottsdomstolen som åtalade, prövade och dömde personer för ’tvångsäktenskap’ som ett brott mot mänskligheten.

Den juridiska karaktäriseringen av tvångsäktenskap visar sig vara
inkonsekvent. Tvångsäktenskap betraktas som ett brott mot mänskligheten,
både under kategorin en ’annan omänsklig handling’, och under kategorin
’sexuellt slaveri’, av SCSL. Denna inkonsekventa rättspraxisen utgör ramen för examensarbetet. Arbetet... (More)
Tvångsäktenskap är ett av de nyaste brotten som har prövats som brott mot
mänskligheten vid en internationell domstol. Under inbördeskriget i Sierra Leone kallades offer för sexuellt våld ofta för ‘bush wives’ eller för ‘rebel wives’. Specialdomstolen för Sierra Leone (SCSL) var den första internationella brottsdomstolen som åtalade, prövade och dömde personer för ’tvångsäktenskap’ som ett brott mot mänskligheten.

Den juridiska karaktäriseringen av tvångsäktenskap visar sig vara
inkonsekvent. Tvångsäktenskap betraktas som ett brott mot mänskligheten,
både under kategorin en ’annan omänsklig handling’, och under kategorin
’sexuellt slaveri’, av SCSL. Denna inkonsekventa rättspraxisen utgör ramen för examensarbetet. Arbetet identifierar två olika grenar av rättspraxis. Den första uppfattningen framgår utifrån rättegångskammarens dom i AFRC-fallet som senare utvecklades vidare av rättegångskammaren i Taylor-fallet, och speglar slutsatsen att tvångsäktenskap omfattas av brott mot mänskligheten avseende ’sexuellt slaveri’. Den andra grenen återfinns i överklagandekammarens dom i AFRC-fallet samt i RUF-fallet, som istället slår fast att tvångsäktenskap omfattas av brott mot mänskligheten avseende kategorin ’andra omänskliga handlingar’.

I uppsatsen så undersöks potentiellt underliggande orsaker till den spretande rättspraxisen som kopplas till legalitetsprincipen och spänningen mellan lagen som den är (lex lata) och lagen så som den borde vara (lex feranda). Arbetet gör ett försök att ifrågasätta huruvida brottet ’tvångsäktenskap’ har erkänts på det sätt som krävs för att det ska anses utgöra internationell sedvanerätt. Huruvida fenomenet ’tvångsäktenskap’ faller under kategoriseringen sexuellt slaveri eller under ’andra omänskliga handlingar’ förblir dock osäkert. (Less)
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author
Möller Andréewitch, Amelia LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20201
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
public international law
language
English
id
9007960
date added to LUP
2020-05-19 15:10:00
date last changed
2020-05-19 15:10:00
@misc{9007960,
  abstract     = {Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes to be tried as a crime against humanity before an international court. During the Sierra Leone civil war, victims of sexual violence were often referred to as ‘bush wives’ or ‘rebel wives’. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) was the first international criminal tribunal to charge, try and convict persons for forced marriage as a crime against humanity. 

The inconsistency in the legal characterisation of forced marriage as a crime against humanity either as an ‘other inhumane act’ or as sexual slavery by the SCSL, provides the framework for this thesis. The research identifies two different branches of the jurisprudence. The first branch, emerging from the Trial Chamber judgement of the Prosecutor v. Brima (the AFRC case) and further developed in the Prosecutor v. Taylor (the Taylor case), reflects the conclusion that acts of forced marriage are adequately pursued as sexual slavery. The second branch, emerging from the judgement of the Appeals Chamber in the AFRC case and the judgement of the Trial Chamber in Prosecutor v. Sesay, Kallon, and Gbao (the RUF case), demanded further conviction under ‘other inhumane acts’ in order to capture the entire wrongdoing of acts of forced marriage.

The research explores potential underlying causes for the conflicting case law. These causes are linked to the principle of legality and the tension of the law as it is (lex lata) and the law as it ought to be (lex feranda). The research makes an attempt to question whether the crime of ‘forced marriage’ has reached the necessary level of recognition for it to be considered an international crime. Whether the phenomenon of ‘forced marriage’ fall under the definition of sexual slavery or under ‘other inhumane acts’ remains uncertain.},
  author       = {Möller Andréewitch, Amelia},
  keyword      = {public international law},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Forced Marriage – A “new” Crime Against Humanity?},
  year         = {2020},
}