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Hemlig dataavläsning - Ett viktigt verktyg i kampen mot allvarlig brottslighet, eller en alltför långtgående inskränkning av individens rättigheter?

Grudén, Marcus LU (2020) JURM02 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka lagen (2020:62) om hemlig dataavläsning samt att jämföra den med tidigare tvångsmedelslagstiftningar och utvärdera tillämpningen av dem. Detta görs för att få möjlighet att analysera lagens lämplighet och den avvägning som lagen aktualiserar i dess införande och tillämpning, nämligen intresset av en effektiv brottsbekämpning å ena sidan och intresset av den personliga integriteten å andra sidan.

För att sätta ramarna för uppsatsens undersökningsområde ges inledningsvis en redogörelse för gällande rätt. Rättighetsskyddet enligt såväl nationell rätt som enligt europakonventionen redogörs för såväl som tidigare lagstiftning över hemliga tvångsmedel. Efter att en grund lagts för förståelsen av... (More)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka lagen (2020:62) om hemlig dataavläsning samt att jämföra den med tidigare tvångsmedelslagstiftningar och utvärdera tillämpningen av dem. Detta görs för att få möjlighet att analysera lagens lämplighet och den avvägning som lagen aktualiserar i dess införande och tillämpning, nämligen intresset av en effektiv brottsbekämpning å ena sidan och intresset av den personliga integriteten å andra sidan.

För att sätta ramarna för uppsatsens undersökningsområde ges inledningsvis en redogörelse för gällande rätt. Rättighetsskyddet enligt såväl nationell rätt som enligt europakonventionen redogörs för såväl som tidigare lagstiftning över hemliga tvångsmedel. Efter att en grund lagts för förståelsen av rättighetsskyddets omfattning i tvångsmedelssammanhang ges en genomgående och detaljerad beskrivning av lagen (2020:62) om hemlig dataavläsning. Detta görs i syfte att ge en djupare förståelse för dess ingrepp i individens rättigheter och under vilka förutsättningar dessa, genom lagens införande, numera tillåts. Även tidigare utredningars ståndpunkter och argument rörande hemlig dataavläsning presenteras.

I uppsatsen ges ett kritiskt perspektiv på de brottsbekämpande myndigheternas tvångsmedelsanvändning. Genom att presentera en granskning av användningen av tidigare tvångsmedel, redovisa data över tvångsmedelsanvändningen under 2018 samt undersöka effektivitetsbegreppets definition i sammanhanget, ges ett underlag från vilket tvångsmedelsanvändningen ur ett praktiskt perspektiv kan analyseras.

Uppsatsen visar att lagen i hög grad uppfyller de krav som rättighetsskyddet ställer på en tvångsmedelslagstiftning i formell mening och att rättssäkerhetsgarantierna i lagstiftningen, såsom restriktioner, vid en helt lagenligt tillämpning är tillräckliga. Frågan om integritetsintresset respekteras och om lagen därmed är lämplig visar sig istället i stor utsträckning vara en tillämpningsfråga, där granskningar visar att allvarliga brister förekommer i de verkställande myndigheternas tillämpning av regelverket. Dessa brister visar vikten av rättssäkerhetsgarantier som dokumentation, underrättelser till enskilda och oberoende granskningsorgan, samt att dessa i formell mening kan vara heltäckande men i praktiken ändå kan missbrukas.

Uppsatsen redogör för data som visar att användningen av tidigare tvångsmedel över tid utvecklats i en riktning som tyder på att centrala principer för tvångsmedelsanvändning inte respekteras i praktiken. Samtidigt som verkställande myndigheter påstår att tvångsmedlens effektivitet har minskat, visar statistiken på en väsentligt ökad tvångsmedelsanvändning. Genom att sätta den jämföra den nya lagstiftningen med äldre tvångsmedel och dess tillämpning, då de nya mer ingripande åtgärderna ska ges striktare restriktioner, konstateras att de i allt väsentligt överensstämmer. Uppsatsens slutsats blir därför att lagen, med nuvarande restriktioner, inte borde ha införts. (Less)
Abstract
This essay will investigate the Swedish Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data in an attempt to gain an understanding of the law itself as well as create a comparative and evaluative matrix to older acts concerning governmental coercive measure. By doing so, it will be possible to analyze the suitability of the act and the prioritization between effective crimefighting measures and privacy concerns brought into the limelight by the act’s implementation into law.

In the interest of establishing a framework for the essay’s research, introductory remarks will give an overview of current legal schemes in this area. Moreover, the protection of individual rights under Swedish national law as well as European Union law will be covered... (More)
This essay will investigate the Swedish Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data in an attempt to gain an understanding of the law itself as well as create a comparative and evaluative matrix to older acts concerning governmental coercive measure. By doing so, it will be possible to analyze the suitability of the act and the prioritization between effective crimefighting measures and privacy concerns brought into the limelight by the act’s implementation into law.

In the interest of establishing a framework for the essay’s research, introductory remarks will give an overview of current legal schemes in this area. Moreover, the protection of individual rights under Swedish national law as well as European Union law will be covered in addition to earlier national regulatory instruments for governmental coercive measures.

After establishing such a framework, this essay will then provide a thorough and detailed description of the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data. Through this process, the essay sets out to provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the act’s repercussions on individual rights and freedoms and under what circumstances said act’s provisions might take effect. In addition to the aforementioned, previous investigations into the matter and their evaluations will be presented.

This essay will present its content by taking on a critical perspective in viewing the crimefighting authorities’ use of coercive measures. By presenting an evaluation of the use of coercive measures previous, as well as data over its usage under the year 2018 and the definition of the effectivity parameter, this essay sets out to create a baseline from which the usage of coercive measures as defined in this paper can be analyzed.

This essay will show how the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data to a high degree fulfills the demands put on regulatory instruments concerning coercive measures in a formal sense, as well as how protective measures to ensure compliance with Swedish rule of law – like the existence of certain restrictions – are adequate for the law’s purpose.

Questions regarding integrity concerns are by and large acknowledged and respected – something that deemed the act suitable to become a law in the first place – turns out to be a matter of adaptation, as investigatory exploration of the act shows serious shortcomings in the executory departments’ practice when undertaking actions supported by the act itself.

These shortcomings are evidential of the importance of protective measures to ensure compliance with Swedish rule of law, such as proper documentation and given notice to private parties and independent watchdogs. The lackluster protective measures in these cases demonstrates how such instruments of the law could be inclusive in theory whilst still enabling misuse of legal instruments by governmental entities.

Finally, this essay makes the case that the usage of coercive measures prior to the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data over time has transformed in such a way that central principles vis-à-vis coercive measures in fact carries little value as deterrents to those who would misappropriate said measures.

Whilst governmental departments claim that the efficiency to coercive measures has lessened, that claim does in fact not line up with attainable statistics, which rather seems to indicate a significant increase in the use of such measures.

By comparing these new coercive measures, as laid out in the aforementioned act of 2020:62, as well as how they are being applied, with older coercive measures, it can be deduced that they all but align – seeing that the new measures are set to be subject to harsher curtailing than their predecessors. The conclusion to this essay will thus be that the act of 2020:62 – current restrictions notwithstanding – should not have been implemented into law. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Grudén, Marcus LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Secret Reading of Data - An important tool in the fight against serious crime, or an overly restrictive violation of the individual rights?
course
JURM02 20201
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law, hemliga tvångsmedel, hemlig dataavläsning, personlig integritet, effektivitet, effektivitetsbegreppet, brottsbekämpande myndigheter
language
Swedish
id
9010153
date added to LUP
2020-06-15 08:50:57
date last changed
2020-06-15 08:50:57
@misc{9010153,
  abstract     = {This essay will investigate the Swedish Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data in an attempt to gain an understanding of the law itself as well as create a comparative and evaluative matrix to older acts concerning governmental coercive measure. By doing so, it will be possible to analyze the suitability of the act and the prioritization between effective crimefighting measures and privacy concerns brought into the limelight by the act’s implementation into law.

In the interest of establishing a framework for the essay’s research, introductory remarks will give an overview of current legal schemes in this area. Moreover, the protection of individual rights under Swedish national law as well as European Union law will be covered in addition to earlier national regulatory instruments for governmental coercive measures. 

After establishing such a framework, this essay will then provide a thorough and detailed description of the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data. Through this process, the essay sets out to provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the act’s repercussions on individual rights and freedoms and under what circumstances said act’s provisions might take effect. In addition to the aforementioned, previous investigations into the matter and their evaluations will be presented.

This essay will present its content by taking on a critical perspective in viewing the crimefighting authorities’ use of coercive measures. By presenting an evaluation of the use of coercive measures previous, as well as data over its usage under the year 2018 and the definition of the effectivity parameter, this essay sets out to create a baseline from which the usage of coercive measures as defined in this paper can be analyzed. 

This essay will show how the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data to a high degree fulfills the demands put on regulatory instruments concerning coercive measures in a formal sense, as well as how protective measures to ensure compliance with Swedish rule of law – like the existence of certain restrictions – are adequate for the law’s purpose.

Questions regarding integrity concerns are by and large acknowledged and respected – something that deemed the act suitable to become a law in the first place – turns out to be a matter of adaptation, as investigatory exploration of the act shows serious shortcomings in the executory departments’ practice when undertaking actions supported by the act itself. 

These shortcomings are evidential of the importance of protective measures to ensure compliance with Swedish rule of law, such as proper documentation and given notice to private parties and independent watchdogs. The lackluster protective measures in these cases demonstrates how such instruments of the law could be inclusive in theory whilst still enabling misuse of legal instruments by governmental entities.

Finally, this essay makes the case that the usage of coercive measures prior to the Act of 2020:62 Regarding Secret Reading of Data over time has transformed in such a way that central principles vis-à-vis coercive measures in fact carries little value as deterrents to those who would misappropriate said measures.

Whilst governmental departments claim that the efficiency to coercive measures has lessened, that claim does in fact not line up with attainable statistics, which rather seems to indicate a significant increase in the use of such measures. 

By comparing these new coercive measures, as laid out in the aforementioned act of 2020:62, as well as how they are being applied, with older coercive measures, it can be deduced that they all but align – seeing that the new measures are set to be subject to harsher curtailing than their predecessors. The conclusion to this essay will thus be that the act of 2020:62 – current restrictions notwithstanding – should not have been implemented into law.},
  author       = {Grudén, Marcus},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law,hemliga tvångsmedel,hemlig dataavläsning,personlig integritet,effektivitet,effektivitetsbegreppet,brottsbekämpande myndigheter},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hemlig dataavläsning - Ett viktigt verktyg i kampen mot allvarlig brottslighet, eller en alltför långtgående inskränkning av individens rättigheter?},
  year         = {2020},
}