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Har vetorätten ett berättigande inom FN idag? - En kritisk analys avseende behovet av vetorätt i modern tid

Ahlgren, Paulina LU (2020) LAGF03 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
In order to establish the UN after world war II, the then five great powers of the world required to have a veto right in the UN Security Council. The other members agreed to this as there were a fundamental need to create a global organization of this nature.

The veto right has resulted in that the permanent members of the Security Council always have had the ability to vote against proposals and resolutions which have been submitted to the Security Council.

The veto right has recently been the subject of criticism from various sources. The core of the criticism has been that the permanent members use the veto right out of self-interest. As a consequence, the UN has in many cases been restricted to take actions, for example initiate... (More)
In order to establish the UN after world war II, the then five great powers of the world required to have a veto right in the UN Security Council. The other members agreed to this as there were a fundamental need to create a global organization of this nature.

The veto right has resulted in that the permanent members of the Security Council always have had the ability to vote against proposals and resolutions which have been submitted to the Security Council.

The veto right has recently been the subject of criticism from various sources. The core of the criticism has been that the permanent members use the veto right out of self-interest. As a consequence, the UN has in many cases been restricted to take actions, for example initiate peace keeping interventions. This may therefore be viewed as counter-productive as the primary goal of the organization is to work for a peaceful world.

The veto right has been further criticized because several issues are not up for discussion at the Security Council, that developing countries do not have a comparable influence even though several decision impact them directly, that principles which have evolved within the UN becomes ineffective, that the veto right instrument can be abused and that the veto right can be used to stop ICJ judgements from being implemented.

Whether the veto right is needed today is a complicated question. On the one hand, much of the criticism of the veto right instrument must be viewed as justified. The veto right is in many cases an obstacle for the UN to act in critical situations. As a consequence, the UN cannot work effectively to against its goals. On the other hand, it is extremely difficult to achieve a reform of the veto right since certain permanent members of the Security Council are highly critical to such a reform and their approval is required. The permanent members are also important as they have access to significant resources. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
För att FN skulle kunna bildas efter andra världskriget fanns det ett krav från de fem stormaktsländerna att de skulle få en rätt till veto i FN:s säkerhetsråd. Då behovet av en global organisation var stor efter andra världskriget gick övriga medlemmar med på att dessa fem länder skulle få en vetorätt.

Vetorätten har inneburit att de fem permanenta medlemmarna i säkerhetsrådet alltid har haft möjlighet att rösta ner förslag eller resolutioner som läggs fram för säkerhetsrådet. Vetorätten har brukats flitigt och ofta går det även att utläsa ett slags mönster över hur de permanenta medlemmarna ska rösta i en viss fråga.

Vetorätten har under senare tid kritiserats starkt från olika håll. Kanske främst har kritik riktats mot att de... (More)
För att FN skulle kunna bildas efter andra världskriget fanns det ett krav från de fem stormaktsländerna att de skulle få en rätt till veto i FN:s säkerhetsråd. Då behovet av en global organisation var stor efter andra världskriget gick övriga medlemmar med på att dessa fem länder skulle få en vetorätt.

Vetorätten har inneburit att de fem permanenta medlemmarna i säkerhetsrådet alltid har haft möjlighet att rösta ner förslag eller resolutioner som läggs fram för säkerhetsrådet. Vetorätten har brukats flitigt och ofta går det även att utläsa ett slags mönster över hur de permanenta medlemmarna ska rösta i en viss fråga.

Vetorätten har under senare tid kritiserats starkt från olika håll. Kanske främst har kritik riktats mot att de permanenta medlemmarna lägger veto utifrån egenintresse i frågan. Detta innebär i sin tur att FN i många fall inte har möjlighet att agera, exempelvis genom att besluta om fredsinsatser. Detta kan därmed anses kontraproduktivt då FN som organisation ska arbeta för fred och säkerhet, något som är organisationens huvudmål.

Vidare har vetorätten kritiserats från flera perspektiv, t.ex. att många frågor inte tas upp för diskussion i säkerhetsrådet, att länder från tredje världen inte får jämförande inflytande i trots att många beslut berör dem, att sättet att bruka vetorätten kan missbrukas eller att vetorätten kan hindra ICJ-domar från att verkställas.

Huruvida vetorätten behövs idag är därför en komplicerad fråga. Å ena sidan finns mycket kritik riktad mot vetorätten som måste anses vara befogad. Vetorätten är i många fall ett hinder för FN för att kunna agera i situationer. Detta i sin tur innebär att FN inte effektivt kan arbeta mot sina uppställda mål. Å andra sidan är det oerhört svårt att få till en reform av vetorätten då vissa permanenta medlemmar ställer sig starkt kritiskt till detta och det behövs ett godkännande från dessa. De permanenta medlemmarna är även viktiga medlemmar på grund av deras tillgång till resurser. (Less)
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author
Ahlgren, Paulina LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20201
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Folkrätt, public international law
language
Swedish
id
9010236
date added to LUP
2020-09-21 13:55:49
date last changed
2020-09-21 13:55:49
@misc{9010236,
  abstract     = {In order to establish the UN after world war II, the then five great powers of the world required to have a veto right in the UN Security Council. The other members agreed to this as there were a fundamental need to create a global organization of this nature.

The veto right has resulted in that the permanent members of the Security Council always have had the ability to vote against proposals and resolutions which have been submitted to the Security Council.

The veto right has recently been the subject of criticism from various sources. The core of the criticism has been that the permanent members use the veto right out of self-interest. As a consequence, the UN has in many cases been restricted to take actions, for example initiate peace keeping interventions. This may therefore be viewed as counter-productive as the primary goal of the organization is to work for a peaceful world.

The veto right has been further criticized because several issues are not up for discussion at the Security Council, that developing countries do not have a comparable influence even though several decision impact them directly, that principles which have evolved within the UN becomes ineffective, that the veto right instrument can be abused and that the veto right can be used to stop ICJ judgements from being implemented.

Whether the veto right is needed today is a complicated question. On the one hand, much of the criticism of the veto right instrument must be viewed as justified. The veto right is in many cases an obstacle for the UN to act in critical situations. As a consequence, the UN cannot work effectively to against its goals. On the other hand, it is extremely difficult to achieve a reform of the veto right since certain permanent members of the Security Council are highly critical to such a reform and their approval is required. The permanent members are also important as they have access to significant resources.},
  author       = {Ahlgren, Paulina},
  keyword      = {Folkrätt,public international law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Har vetorätten ett berättigande inom FN idag? - En kritisk analys avseende behovet av vetorätt i modern tid},
  year         = {2020},
}