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Deltagandeförbud i rasistiska organisationer? - En undersökning av en eventuell kriminalisering utifrån allmänprevention

Safaei, Azalea LU (2020) LAGF03 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The issue of a ban on racist organizations has been considered on several
occasions. There are two main reasons for said consideration; firstly,
because of Sweden’s association to the United Nations’ International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
(ICERD), which requires the States Parties to ban racist organizations; and
secondly, because of the issue of organized racism in Sweden.
In preparatory materials, it has been argued that existing Swedish legislation
is sufficient to comply with the convention’s requirements and that the
circumstances in Sweden are not such that a new legislation is called for. At
the same time, media has increasingly reported racist organizations, such as
the Nordic... (More)
The issue of a ban on racist organizations has been considered on several
occasions. There are two main reasons for said consideration; firstly,
because of Sweden’s association to the United Nations’ International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
(ICERD), which requires the States Parties to ban racist organizations; and
secondly, because of the issue of organized racism in Sweden.
In preparatory materials, it has been argued that existing Swedish legislation
is sufficient to comply with the convention’s requirements and that the
circumstances in Sweden are not such that a new legislation is called for. At
the same time, media has increasingly reported racist organizations, such as
the Nordic Resistance Movement (NMR). Due to organized racism in
Sweden, in 2019 the Swedish Government launched a commission of
inquiry aimed at investigating whether a ban on racist organizations or
participation in such organizations should be introduced.
The criminalization of racist organizations is a politically charged matter
and political values have frequently been used to argue in favour or against
such a ban. Continental theories of criminal law are used to motivate
criminalization, and in Sweden the theory of deterrence is considered to be
fundamental for criminalization issues.
This essay is intended to investigate whether criminalization of participation
in racist organizations is justified on the basis of deterrence.
This study shows that the growth of organized racism poses a threat to
democracy and human equality. Conversely, deterrence, implies that
criminalization must reduce the total damage in society, commonly referred
to at the Harm Principle (the harm principle) while also being the most
effective alternative. Although a participation ban would inhibit the growth
2
of organized racism, there are several criteria for criminalization that must
be taken into account. This essay shows that racism is not always connected
to an organization, and that it is a widespread issue within many sectors of
the Swedish society.
In keeping with the Harm Principle, this study shows that criminalizing
organized racism does not necessarily reduce the total damage in society nor
is the most effective measure. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Frågan om ett förbud mot rasistiska organisationer har övervägts vid flera tillfällen. Dels med anledning av Sveriges anslutning till FN:s
Internationella konvention om avskaffandet av alla former av
rasdiskriminering (ICERD) som ålägger konventionsstaterna att förbjuda
rasistiska organisationer, dels med anledning av den organiserade rasismen i Sverige.

I förarbeten har det argumenterats för att existerande lagstiftning är
tillräcklig för att leva upp till konventionskravet samt att omständigheterna i landet inte är sådana att en lagstiftning påkallas. Samtidigt rapporteras det i media om en ökad exponering av rasistiska organisationer, exempelvis Nordiska motståndsrörelsen (NMR). Med anledning av den organiserade rasismen i... (More)
Frågan om ett förbud mot rasistiska organisationer har övervägts vid flera tillfällen. Dels med anledning av Sveriges anslutning till FN:s
Internationella konvention om avskaffandet av alla former av
rasdiskriminering (ICERD) som ålägger konventionsstaterna att förbjuda
rasistiska organisationer, dels med anledning av den organiserade rasismen i Sverige.

I förarbeten har det argumenterats för att existerande lagstiftning är
tillräcklig för att leva upp till konventionskravet samt att omständigheterna i landet inte är sådana att en lagstiftning påkallas. Samtidigt rapporteras det i media om en ökad exponering av rasistiska organisationer, exempelvis Nordiska motståndsrörelsen (NMR). Med anledning av den organiserade rasismen i Sverige fattade regeringen sommaren 2019 ett beslut om att tillsätta en utredning som syftar till att undersöka huruvida det borde införas ett förbud mot rasistiska organisationer eller deltagande i sådana.

En eventuell kriminalisering av rasistiska organisationer är politiskt laddat. I tidigare utredningar om ett förbud lyfts inte sällan politiska värderingar fram som skäl för och emot ett förbud. Till stöd för frågan om kriminalisering finns även straffteorier, och i Sverige är teorin om allmänprevention den som anses bärande för kriminaliseringsfrågor.
Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka huruvida en kriminalisering av
deltagandet i rasistiska organisationer är rättfärdigat utifrån den
allmänpreventiva teorin.

I undersökningen framkommer det att den organiserade rasismens tillväxt
utgör ett hot mot demokratin och människors lika värde. Redogörelsen av
allmänprevention visar att en kriminalisering, i enlighet med
skadeprincipen, måste minska den totala skadan i samhället men även vara
det mest effektiva alternativet. Trots att ett deltagandeförbud hade hämmat tillväxten av den organiserade rasismen, finns det fler kriterier för en kriminalisering som måste beaktas. I undersökningen framkommer det att det finns brister i andra samhällssektorer där rasismen skär igenom.

Uppsatsens slutsats är att en kriminalisering inte är det mest effektiva
medlet. I skadeprincipen spår framstår det inte som självklart att en
kriminalisering minskar den totala skadan i samhället. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Safaei, Azalea LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20201
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
allmän rättslära, straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
9010331
date added to LUP
2020-09-21 13:54:11
date last changed
2020-09-21 13:54:11
@misc{9010331,
  abstract     = {The issue of a ban on racist organizations has been considered on several
occasions. There are two main reasons for said consideration; firstly,
because of Sweden’s association to the United Nations’ International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
(ICERD), which requires the States Parties to ban racist organizations; and
secondly, because of the issue of organized racism in Sweden.
In preparatory materials, it has been argued that existing Swedish legislation
is sufficient to comply with the convention’s requirements and that the
circumstances in Sweden are not such that a new legislation is called for. At
the same time, media has increasingly reported racist organizations, such as
the Nordic Resistance Movement (NMR). Due to organized racism in
Sweden, in 2019 the Swedish Government launched a commission of
inquiry aimed at investigating whether a ban on racist organizations or
participation in such organizations should be introduced.
The criminalization of racist organizations is a politically charged matter
and political values have frequently been used to argue in favour or against
such a ban. Continental theories of criminal law are used to motivate
criminalization, and in Sweden the theory of deterrence is considered to be
fundamental for criminalization issues.
This essay is intended to investigate whether criminalization of participation
in racist organizations is justified on the basis of deterrence.
This study shows that the growth of organized racism poses a threat to
democracy and human equality. Conversely, deterrence, implies that
criminalization must reduce the total damage in society, commonly referred
to at the Harm Principle (the harm principle) while also being the most
effective alternative. Although a participation ban would inhibit the growth 
2
of organized racism, there are several criteria for criminalization that must
be taken into account. This essay shows that racism is not always connected
to an organization, and that it is a widespread issue within many sectors of
the Swedish society.
In keeping with the Harm Principle, this study shows that criminalizing
organized racism does not necessarily reduce the total damage in society nor
is the most effective measure.},
  author       = {Safaei, Azalea},
  keyword      = {allmän rättslära,straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Deltagandeförbud i rasistiska organisationer? - En undersökning av en eventuell kriminalisering utifrån allmänprevention},
  year         = {2020},
}