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Åtalsuppgörelser i svensk rätt - en främmande fågel?

Nilsson, Johanna LU (2020) JURM02 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Negotiations between the prosecutor and the suspect is often associated with Anglo-American legal systems, where so-called plea bargaining dominates criminal procedures. Plea bargaining as a procedural instrument has spread to Europe but is still a foreign phenomenon in Sweden. Historically, the legislator has rejected a procedure that allows the parties of the criminal case to negotiate. The threat against the rule of law has been considered problematic and the disadvantages of plea bargaining have outweighed any benefits in terms of efficiency. The few opinions regarding plea bargaining expressed in doctrine also indicate that the procedure´s be or not to be is about a balance between efficiency and the rule of law.

Today’s trend... (More)
Negotiations between the prosecutor and the suspect is often associated with Anglo-American legal systems, where so-called plea bargaining dominates criminal procedures. Plea bargaining as a procedural instrument has spread to Europe but is still a foreign phenomenon in Sweden. Historically, the legislator has rejected a procedure that allows the parties of the criminal case to negotiate. The threat against the rule of law has been considered problematic and the disadvantages of plea bargaining have outweighed any benefits in terms of efficiency. The few opinions regarding plea bargaining expressed in doctrine also indicate that the procedure´s be or not to be is about a balance between efficiency and the rule of law.

Today’s trend towards an increase in crimes that are advanced and difficult to investigate means that available recourses must be used effectively. The thesis therefore examines if plea bargaining could function as a tool for the authorities within the judicial system, and thus contribute to the effectiveness of the criminal procedure. Due to the starting point, that the rule of law takes a superior position, the thesis also examines how plea bargaining relates to the individual´s legal guarantees and the criminal procedure.

The Swedish rules on preliminary investigation are being examined and it is concluded that there are several exceptions from the absolute obligation to investigate and prosecute crimes. In the light of precedents from the European Court of Human Rights it is shown that procedural agreements are allowed if they meet certain conditions. Furthermore, it is investigated how the Finnish system with plea bargaining is structured. In this matter it has been shown that the Finnish regulation meets the requirements of the European Court of Human Rights and constitute a compromise between efficiency and the rule of law. Therefore, the Finnish law can serve as a model for how a potential Swedish procedure with plea bargaining could appear.

Lastly it is concluded that plea bargaining could function as a sharp tool to solve crimes that are difficult to investigate. An agreement between the prosecutor and the suspect saves time and money. This while the resources can be concentrated on investigating other crimes. But plea bargaining also involves a risk concerning the rule of law and gives the state the opportunity to affect the individual in an improper way. In a democratic state governed by law, it is important that the citizens are protected and treated respectably in the criminal procedure. This leads to the conclusion that plea bargaining can´t contribute to a more effective legal system without jeopardizing the rule of law. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Förhandlingar mellan åklagaren och den brottsmisstänkte associeras ofta med angloamerikanska rättssystem, där så kallad plea bargaining dominerar brottmålsförfarandet. Åtalsuppgörelser som processuellt instrument har fått spridning också till Europa. För svenskt vidkommande utgör det däremot fortfarande en främmande företeelse. Historiskt sett har lagstiftaren tagit avstånd från ett förfarande där brottmålsparterna tillåts komma överens. Risken för att rättssäkerheten går förlorad har ansetts problematisk och nackdelarna med åtalsuppgörelser har ansetts väga tyngre än eventuella effektivitetsvinster. Även de få åsikter som framförts i doktrin indikerar att förfarandets vara eller icke vara handlar om en avvägning mellan effektivitet och... (More)
Förhandlingar mellan åklagaren och den brottsmisstänkte associeras ofta med angloamerikanska rättssystem, där så kallad plea bargaining dominerar brottmålsförfarandet. Åtalsuppgörelser som processuellt instrument har fått spridning också till Europa. För svenskt vidkommande utgör det däremot fortfarande en främmande företeelse. Historiskt sett har lagstiftaren tagit avstånd från ett förfarande där brottmålsparterna tillåts komma överens. Risken för att rättssäkerheten går förlorad har ansetts problematisk och nackdelarna med åtalsuppgörelser har ansetts väga tyngre än eventuella effektivitetsvinster. Även de få åsikter som framförts i doktrin indikerar att förfarandets vara eller icke vara handlar om en avvägning mellan effektivitet och rättssäkerhet.

Dagens trend mot en alltmer avancerad och svårutredd brottslighet gör att de resurser som finns måste användas effektivt. I framställningen utreds därför om åtalsuppgörelser kan fungera som ett verktyg för de brottsutredande myndigheterna, och därmed bidra till en effektivisering av den svenska straffprocessen. Då uppsatsen utgår från att rättssäkerheten är överordnad undersöks även hur åtalsuppgörelser förhåller sig till individens rättsgarantier och straffprocessen som helhet.

Det svenska förundersökningsstadiet utreds och det konstateras att det finns flera undantag från den absoluta förundersöknings- och åtalsplikten. Mot bakgrund av Europadomstolens praxis påvisas att processuella överenskommelser är tillåtna om de uppfyller vissa rättssäkerhetskrav. Vidare undersöks hur det finska systemet med åtalsuppgörelser är uppbyggt. Här har det visat sig att den finska regleringen möter Europadomstolens krav och utgör en kompromiss mellan effektivitet och rättssäkerhet. Finsk rätt kan därför fungera som förebild för hur ett potentiellt svenskt förfarande skulle kunna se ut.

Avslutningsvis konstateras att åtalsuppgörelser möjligen kan utgöra ett skarpt verktyg för att komma tillrätta med svårutredd brottslighet. En överenskommelse mellan åklagaren och den brottsmisstänkte sparar tid och pengar samtidigt som resurser kan koncentreras till utredning av andra brott. Åtalsuppgörelser innebär däremot även stora rättssäkerhetsrisker och ger staten möjlighet att påverka den enskilde på ett olämpligt sätt. I en demokratisk rättsstat är det viktigt att individen skyddas och behandlas respektabelt inom ramen för brottmålsprocessen. Det sagda medför slutsatsen att åtalsuppgörelser inte kan bidra till ett effektivare rättssystem utan att rättssäkerheten äventyras. (Less)
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author
Nilsson, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Plea bargaining in Swedish law - a foreign phenomenon?
course
JURM02 20201
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Straffprocessrätt, Åtalsuppgörelser, Plea bargaining
language
Swedish
id
9010368
date added to LUP
2020-06-18 21:03:18
date last changed
2020-06-18 21:03:18
@misc{9010368,
  abstract     = {Negotiations between the prosecutor and the suspect is often associated with Anglo-American legal systems, where so-called plea bargaining dominates criminal procedures. Plea bargaining as a procedural instrument has spread to Europe but is still a foreign phenomenon in Sweden. Historically, the legislator has rejected a procedure that allows the parties of the criminal case to negotiate. The threat against the rule of law has been considered problematic and the disadvantages of plea bargaining have outweighed any benefits in terms of efficiency. The few opinions regarding plea bargaining expressed in doctrine also indicate that the procedure´s be or not to be is about a balance between efficiency and the rule of law. 

Today’s trend towards an increase in crimes that are advanced and difficult to investigate means that available recourses must be used effectively. The thesis therefore examines if plea bargaining could function as a tool for the authorities within the judicial system, and thus contribute to the effectiveness of the criminal procedure. Due to the starting point, that the rule of law takes a superior position, the thesis also examines how plea bargaining relates to the individual´s legal guarantees and the criminal procedure. 

The Swedish rules on preliminary investigation are being examined and it is concluded that there are several exceptions from the absolute obligation to investigate and prosecute crimes. In the light of precedents from the European Court of Human Rights it is shown that procedural agreements are allowed if they meet certain conditions. Furthermore, it is investigated how the Finnish system with plea bargaining is structured. In this matter it has been shown that the Finnish regulation meets the requirements of the European Court of Human Rights and constitute a compromise between efficiency and the rule of law. Therefore, the Finnish law can serve as a model for how a potential Swedish procedure with plea bargaining could appear. 

Lastly it is concluded that plea bargaining could function as a sharp tool to solve crimes that are difficult to investigate. An agreement between the prosecutor and the suspect saves time and money. This while the resources can be concentrated on investigating other crimes. But plea bargaining also involves a risk concerning the rule of law and gives the state the opportunity to affect the individual in an improper way. In a democratic state governed by law, it is important that the citizens are protected and treated respectably in the criminal procedure. This leads to the conclusion that plea bargaining can´t contribute to a more effective legal system without jeopardizing the rule of law.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Johanna},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Straffprocessrätt,Åtalsuppgörelser,Plea bargaining},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Åtalsuppgörelser i svensk rätt - en främmande fågel?},
  year         = {2020},
}