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När tekniken möter juridiken – Hur förhåller sig den svenska upphovsrätten till AI-genererade alster?

Cieplik, Monika LU (2020) JURM02 20201
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Framväxten av artificiell intelligens (AI) har medfört ett flertal utmaningar för det upphovsrättsliga regelverket. Det befintliga upphovsrättsliga regelverket ger skydd åt verk som skapats av en människa. Samtidigt har framstegen inom AI och den djupa maskininlärningen möjliggjort att AI-system genererar alster i form av litteratur, musik och bilder, som traditionellt har hört till människans domän.

I framställningen har det undersökts hur genereringen av AI-alster går till och om det kan uppstå upphovsrättsintrång i exemplarframställningsrätten till existerande skyddade verk som används som input i AI-systemet. När algoritmer i AI-system ”läser” och ”tittar” på skyddat material sker det tillfällig exemplarframställning.... (More)
Framväxten av artificiell intelligens (AI) har medfört ett flertal utmaningar för det upphovsrättsliga regelverket. Det befintliga upphovsrättsliga regelverket ger skydd åt verk som skapats av en människa. Samtidigt har framstegen inom AI och den djupa maskininlärningen möjliggjort att AI-system genererar alster i form av litteratur, musik och bilder, som traditionellt har hört till människans domän.

I framställningen har det undersökts hur genereringen av AI-alster går till och om det kan uppstå upphovsrättsintrång i exemplarframställningsrätten till existerande skyddade verk som används som input i AI-systemet. När algoritmer i AI-system ”läser” och ”tittar” på skyddat material sker det tillfällig exemplarframställning. Upphovsmannens ensamrätt kan inskränkas i 11 a § URL genom att vissa tillfälliga kopior tillåts framställas utan upphovsmannens tillstånd. I framställningen har det konstaterats att inskränkningen inte är tillämplig för sådana tillfälliga kopior som uppstår vid genereringen av AI-alster.

Den andra övergripande delen i framställningen tar sikt på det slutresultat som genererats fram av ett AI-system, nämligen AI-alstret. I framställningen har det undersökts vilken betydelse det har att AI-system använder sig av existerande verk som inspiration i sin egen kreativa process och huruvida AI-alster kan utgöra en bearbetning av det tidigare verket eller ett nytt och självständigt verk.

För att ett alster ska anses vara ett ”verk” enligt URL:s mening måste det vara originellt på det sätt att det är upphovsmannens egen intellektuella skapelse. Originalitetskravet har harmoniserats genom EUD:s praxis och innebär bl.a. att verket ska spegla upphovsmannens personlighet. I framställningen har det undersökts om ett AI-alster kan erhålla upphovsrätt beroende på hur stor den mänskliga insatsen har varit i processen.

AI:s tänkbara intåg i upphovsrätten har krävt en undersökning av upphovsrättens grundläggande motiv, för att undersöka hur AI-alster passar i in i och om det är i linje med motiven att skydda AI-alster genom upphovsrätten eller till upphovsrätten närstående rättigheter. De naturrättsliga argumenten för upphovsrätt som värnar om det mänskliga skapandet tycks utestänga AI-genererade alster från upphovsrätten. Incitamentsteorin fäster däremot ingen vikt vid vem det är som skapar alster, istället betraktas upphovsrätten som ett incitament till att fler alster skapas och distribueras till samhället. Även om AI inte uppmuntras av ekonomiska incitament så gör eventuellt skaparna bakom AI-systemen det. Undersökningen konstaterar att om AI:s utveckling ska fortskrida, måste det upphovsrättsliga regelverket anpassas och framtidssäkras. Framställningen föreslår en ändring av originalitetskravet eller ett införande av en ny närstående rättighet. Vidare bör en anpassad inskränkning för tillfälliga kopior som uppstår vid AI:s generering att införas. (Less)
Abstract
The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) poses a number of challenges to copyright law. The existing copyright regulations provide protection for works created by human beings. At the same time, advances in AI and deep machine learning have enabled AI systems to generate creations of literature, music and images, which are traditionally associated with the human domain.

The thesis investigates the generating process of AI-creations and whether any copyright infringements could occur in relation to, for example, the exclusive reproduction right of the existing works which are used as input in the AI system. When algorithms in the AI systems "read" and "look" at protected content, the temporary copying takes place. Although generally... (More)
The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) poses a number of challenges to copyright law. The existing copyright regulations provide protection for works created by human beings. At the same time, advances in AI and deep machine learning have enabled AI systems to generate creations of literature, music and images, which are traditionally associated with the human domain.

The thesis investigates the generating process of AI-creations and whether any copyright infringements could occur in relation to, for example, the exclusive reproduction right of the existing works which are used as input in the AI system. When algorithms in the AI systems "read" and "look" at protected content, the temporary copying takes place. Although generally the author's exclusive right may be restricted pursuant to 11 a URL §, by allowing certain use of temporary copies without the author's permission, in the thesis it is stated that the exception is not applicable to temporary acts of reproduction that occur during the generating process of AI-creations.

The second comprehensive part of the thesis focuses at the end result generated by an AI system, namely the AI-creation. The thesis investigates the significance of the AI system using the existing works as inspiration in their own creative process and whether the AI-creation constitutes derivative work or new, independent work.

In order for a creation to qualify as "work" in accordance with the Swedish Copyright Act, the creation has to be original in the sense that it is the author's own intellectual creation. The concept of originality has been harmonized through the practice of the ECJ and, consequently, the work within the meaning herein should, for instance, reflect the author's personality. The thesis investigates whether an AI-creation is generally able to obtain copyright protection depending on the amount of the human effort invested in the creation process.

The possible entry of AI into copyright law has required an examination of the fundamental motives thereof, in order to investigate how AI creations fit in the sphere of copyright law and whether they could meet the criteria for the AI creations to be protected with copyrights or neighboring rights. However, it seems that the arguments of the natural rights defend the human-made creations and seem to exclude AI-generated creations from copyright protection. The incentive theory does not make a difference of who creates creations, instead copyright protection is regarded as an incentive for more creations to be created and distributed to society. Although AI is not encouraged by financial incentives, the creators behind the AI systems may be. The study finds that if AI development is to continue, the relevant copyright regulations must be introduced and adjusted to fit the purpose. Amendments to the concept of originality are suggested as well as potential introduction of new neighboring rights to cover the subject. Furthermore, legal exemptions with respect to the use of temporary copies arising from AI's generating process should be implemented. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Cieplik, Monika LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
When technology meets the law - How does Swedish copyright law relate to AI-generated creations?
course
JURM02 20201
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
immaterialrätt, AI, artificiell intelligens, upphovsrätt, copyright, intellectual property
language
Swedish
id
9010887
date added to LUP
2020-06-15 11:51:41
date last changed
2020-06-15 11:51:41
@misc{9010887,
  abstract     = {The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) poses a number of challenges to copyright law. The existing copyright regulations provide protection for works created by human beings. At the same time, advances in AI and deep machine learning have enabled AI systems to generate creations of literature, music and images, which are traditionally associated with the human domain.

The thesis investigates the generating process of AI-creations and whether any copyright infringements could occur in relation to, for example, the exclusive reproduction right of the existing works which are used as input in the AI system. When algorithms in the AI systems "read" and "look" at protected content, the temporary copying takes place. Although generally the author's exclusive right may be restricted pursuant to 11 a URL §, by allowing certain use of temporary copies without the author's permission, in the thesis it is stated that the exception is not applicable to temporary acts of reproduction that occur during the generating process of AI-creations. 

The second comprehensive part of the thesis focuses at the end result generated by an AI system, namely the AI-creation. The thesis investigates the significance of the AI system using the existing works as inspiration in their own creative process and whether the AI-creation constitutes derivative work or new, independent work. 

In order for a creation to qualify as "work" in accordance with the Swedish Copyright Act, the creation has to be original in the sense that it is the author's own intellectual creation. The concept of originality has been harmonized through the practice of the ECJ and, consequently, the work within the meaning herein should, for instance, reflect the author's personality. The thesis investigates whether an AI-creation is generally able to obtain copyright protection depending on the amount of the human effort invested in the creation process.

The possible entry of AI into copyright law has required an examination of the fundamental motives thereof, in order to investigate how AI creations fit in the sphere of copyright law and whether they could meet the criteria for the AI creations to be protected with copyrights or neighboring rights. However, it seems that the arguments of the natural rights defend the human-made creations and seem to exclude AI-generated creations from copyright protection. The incentive theory does not make a difference of who creates creations, instead copyright protection is regarded as an incentive for more creations to be created and distributed to society. Although AI is not encouraged by financial incentives, the creators behind the AI systems may be. The study finds that if AI development is to continue, the relevant copyright regulations must be introduced and adjusted to fit the purpose. Amendments to the concept of originality are suggested as well as potential introduction of new neighboring rights to cover the subject. Furthermore, legal exemptions with respect to the use of temporary copies arising from AI's generating process should be implemented.},
  author       = {Cieplik, Monika},
  keyword      = {immaterialrätt,AI,artificiell intelligens,upphovsrätt,copyright,intellectual property},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {När tekniken möter juridiken – Hur förhåller sig den svenska upphovsrätten till AI-genererade alster?},
  year         = {2020},
}