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Räkna rättvist? En litteraturstudie om konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar i svensk och internationell klimatpolitik

Alterå, Ida LU (2020) FMIL01 20201
Environmental and Energy Systems Studies
Abstract (Swedish)
I detta kandidatarbete undersöks förutsättningarna för och effekterna av en övergång från produktionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar till konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar inom internationell respektive svensk klimatpolitik. Studien utförs i form av en litteraturstudie.

Resultatet visar att det är mycket svårt att avgöra vad effekterna av en övergång till konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar skulle innebära, både på nationell och internationell nivå. Ur ett ansvarsfördelningsperspektiv ger ingen av de tre principer som diskuteras i studien något entydigt svar kring huruvida KBU eller PBU vore det mest rättvisa systemet. Konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar har också flera praktiska begränsningar, i form av större osäkerhet i... (More)
I detta kandidatarbete undersöks förutsättningarna för och effekterna av en övergång från produktionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar till konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar inom internationell respektive svensk klimatpolitik. Studien utförs i form av en litteraturstudie.

Resultatet visar att det är mycket svårt att avgöra vad effekterna av en övergång till konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar skulle innebära, både på nationell och internationell nivå. Ur ett ansvarsfördelningsperspektiv ger ingen av de tre principer som diskuteras i studien något entydigt svar kring huruvida KBU eller PBU vore det mest rättvisa systemet. Konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar har också flera praktiska begränsningar, i form av större osäkerhet i beräkningarna och krav på omfattande och öppen redovisning av utsläppsdata.

En övergång till konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar i Sverige skulle innebära ett ökat fokus på konsumentbeteenden, vilka är mycket svåra att förutsäga. Därför är det också svårt att avgöra om en sådan övergång skulle göra klimatpolitiken mer effektiv eller inte. De politiska riskerna med en sådan fokusförflyttning innebär sannolikt ett visst motstånd mot en sådan förändring, och inget politiskt parti i Sverige driver frågan om att byta ut dagens beräkningssystem mot ett konsumtionsbaserat sådant. Däremot har förslag om kompletterande klimatmål baserade på utsläpp från konsumtion diskuterats tidigare och verkar också komma att dyka upp i svensk politisk debatt framöver.

En del argumenterar för att en internationell klimatregim baserad på konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar skulle vara mer rättvis, eftersom den skulle lägga ett större ansvar på utvecklade länder. Forskningen ger däremot inget entydigt svar på huruvida det faktiskt skulle bli effekten av en sådan övergång. Samtidigt skulle en omförhandling av beräkningsgrunden för den internationella klimatregimen förmodligen ta många år, om den skulle lyckas. De politiska förutsättningarna för en sådan förändring ser i dagsläget inte särskilt goda ut, men möjligen skulle en mindre komplettering av dagens system för att inkludera utsläpp från konsumtion vara mer genomförbar. (Less)
Abstract
This literature study examines the potential for and effects of a transition from production-based to consumption-based accounting in international and Swedish climate policy, respectively.

The result shows that it is very difficult to determine what the effects of such a transition would be, both on the international and Swedish level. Regarding the question of responsibility for emissions, none of the three principles discussed in the study give a clear answer to whether a system built on consumption-based accounting would be more just than a production-based system. Furthermore, consumption-based accounting has several practical limitations such as larger calculation uncertainties and the need for extensive and transparent reporting... (More)
This literature study examines the potential for and effects of a transition from production-based to consumption-based accounting in international and Swedish climate policy, respectively.

The result shows that it is very difficult to determine what the effects of such a transition would be, both on the international and Swedish level. Regarding the question of responsibility for emissions, none of the three principles discussed in the study give a clear answer to whether a system built on consumption-based accounting would be more just than a production-based system. Furthermore, consumption-based accounting has several practical limitations such as larger calculation uncertainties and the need for extensive and transparent reporting of emissions data.

A transition to consumption-based accounting in Sweden would intensify the focus on consumer behaviour, which is very difficult to predict. Therefore, it is also difficult to determine whether or not such a transition would make Swedish climate policy more effective. The political risks with such a shift in focus has likely resulted in a certain resistance against proposing a transition to consumption-based accounting, and no political party in Sweden has done so. However, political proposals about complementing existing climate goals with goals based on emissions from consumption have been discussed and it seems likely that further propositions will be made regarding this issue in the future.

Some argue that an international climate regime based on consumption-based emissions accounting would be fairer because it would give developed nations a larger responsibility. However, the science does not give a clear answer on whether or not that would be the effect of such a transition. Meanwhile, a renegotiation of the accounting system in UNFCCC would probably take many years, should it succeed at all. Politically, such a transition looks difficult to achieve, but perhaps a smaller complementary system based on consumption could be a viable way of including emissions from consumption in the international climate regime. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alterå, Ida LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Fair accounting? A literature review on consumption-based accounting in Swedish and international climate policy
course
FMIL01 20201
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Konsumtionsbaserade utsläpp, klimatpolitik, rättvisa, Sverige, UNFCCC
report number
ISRN LUTFD2/TFEM-20/5162--SE + (1-44)
ISSN
1102-3651
language
Swedish
id
9020333
date added to LUP
2020-06-22 14:45:49
date last changed
2020-06-22 14:45:49
@misc{9020333,
  abstract     = {This literature study examines the potential for and effects of a transition from production-based to consumption-based accounting in international and Swedish climate policy, respectively.

The result shows that it is very difficult to determine what the effects of such a transition would be, both on the international and Swedish level. Regarding the question of responsibility for emissions, none of the three principles discussed in the study give a clear answer to whether a system built on consumption-based accounting would be more just than a production-based system. Furthermore, consumption-based accounting has several practical limitations such as larger calculation uncertainties and the need for extensive and transparent reporting of emissions data.

A transition to consumption-based accounting in Sweden would intensify the focus on consumer behaviour, which is very difficult to predict. Therefore, it is also difficult to determine whether or not such a transition would make Swedish climate policy more effective. The political risks with such a shift in focus has likely resulted in a certain resistance against proposing a transition to consumption-based accounting, and no political party in Sweden has done so. However, political proposals about complementing existing climate goals with goals based on emissions from consumption have been discussed and it seems likely that further propositions will be made regarding this issue in the future.

Some argue that an international climate regime based on consumption-based emissions accounting would be fairer because it would give developed nations a larger responsibility. However, the science does not give a clear answer on whether or not that would be the effect of such a transition. Meanwhile, a renegotiation of the accounting system in UNFCCC would probably take many years, should it succeed at all. Politically, such a transition looks difficult to achieve, but perhaps a smaller complementary system based on consumption could be a viable way of including emissions from consumption in the international climate regime.},
  author       = {Alterå, Ida},
  issn         = {1102-3651},
  keyword      = {Konsumtionsbaserade utsläpp,klimatpolitik,rättvisa,Sverige,UNFCCC},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Räkna rättvist? En litteraturstudie om konsumtionsbaserade utsläppsberäkningar i svensk och internationell klimatpolitik},
  year         = {2020},
}