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Remote sensing analysis of land cover/use conditions of community-based wildlife conservation areas in Tanzania

Mwakoba, Kharid LU (2021) In Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science GISM01 20192
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
Community based approaches to conservation in the developing world have generally been criticized for not meeting their goals of sustainable conservation and local development. Inadequate local participation and inequitable benefits sharing among others are some of the major concerns. In Tanzania wildlife management areas (WMAs) are one of the forms of community-based wildlife conservation initiatives established since 2003 around country’s extensive network of protected areas bordering villages. Success stories and challenges about WMAs have already been written about but not land cover/use conditions of such areas under the current debate about their role to local communities. It is therefore expected that land cover/use conditions of... (More)
Community based approaches to conservation in the developing world have generally been criticized for not meeting their goals of sustainable conservation and local development. Inadequate local participation and inequitable benefits sharing among others are some of the major concerns. In Tanzania wildlife management areas (WMAs) are one of the forms of community-based wildlife conservation initiatives established since 2003 around country’s extensive network of protected areas bordering villages. Success stories and challenges about WMAs have already been written about but not land cover/use conditions of such areas under the current debate about their role to local communities. It is therefore expected that land cover/use conditions of the WMAs would be deteriorating.

By using Remote Sensing data and Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis tool this study intends to fill in that gap by analyzing normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover/use characteristics and change and human-wildlife conflicts datasets over the last twenty-eight years to understand the trend, current conditions and predict its future for informing decision makers and other involved stakeholders. NDVI trend analysis and land cover/use change detection have been carried to assess land cover/use conditions of an area. Human-wildlife conflicts data have also been summarized as total number of conflict incidents to gain some insights about the extent of wildlife species presence as conditioned by conservation or degradation activities. Conflicts data are also useful to understand the trend.

The results show that ecosystem of the WMA is degrading as predicted by the criticisms leveled against the establishment processes and management of WMAs in the country. Tree greenness trend is slightly positive but human land use activities (farming and grazing) within the study area have been increasing after its establishment while other land cover types have been transitioning from one type to another. Different land cover/use types like agriculture especially have been growing on deciduous forest which is the largest land cover category in the area. Because the area size of deciduous forest has slightly increased it has also been growing on all other land cover/use types. Furthermore, problem animal incidents have also been increasing with an increase of human population size in the area. Therefore, there is no positive correlation between WMA and its ecosystem. However, for a complete analysis of the ecosystem other ecological and non-ecological variables such as wildlife population trend and rainfall should also be analyzed. (Less)
Abstract (Uncoded languages)
Uhifadhi shirikishi katika nchi zinazoendelea umekosolewa kwa kushindwa kutimiza madhumuni yake makuu ya uhifadhi na maendeleo endelevu kwa jamii. Ushirikishwaji finyu na faida zisizo sawia ni miongoni mwa sababu kadhaa zinazoleta utata. Jumuiya za hifadhi za wanyamapori Tanzania ni moja ya jitihada zinazoshirikisha jamii katika uhifadhi zilizoanzishwa tangu mwaka 2003 pembezoni mwa maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa nchini (mfano hifadhi za taifa). Mafanikio na changamoto za jumuiya hizi zimekwishajadiliwa kwa kina tayari isipokuwa hali ya uoto wa asili na matumizi ya maeneo haya hususani wakati huu wa mjadala juu ya faida za jumuiya hizi kwa jamii. Kwasababu ya kuwepo kwa kutoridhika na faida za jumuiya hizi inategemewa kwamba hali ya uoto wa asili... (More)
Uhifadhi shirikishi katika nchi zinazoendelea umekosolewa kwa kushindwa kutimiza madhumuni yake makuu ya uhifadhi na maendeleo endelevu kwa jamii. Ushirikishwaji finyu na faida zisizo sawia ni miongoni mwa sababu kadhaa zinazoleta utata. Jumuiya za hifadhi za wanyamapori Tanzania ni moja ya jitihada zinazoshirikisha jamii katika uhifadhi zilizoanzishwa tangu mwaka 2003 pembezoni mwa maeneo yaliyohifadhiwa nchini (mfano hifadhi za taifa). Mafanikio na changamoto za jumuiya hizi zimekwishajadiliwa kwa kina tayari isipokuwa hali ya uoto wa asili na matumizi ya maeneo haya hususani wakati huu wa mjadala juu ya faida za jumuiya hizi kwa jamii. Kwasababu ya kuwepo kwa kutoridhika na faida za jumuiya hizi inategemewa kwamba hali ya uoto wa asili na matumizi ya maeneo haya si nzuri.

Kwa kutumia vyanzo vya data za Kijiografia na technolojia ya Mfumo wa Taarifa za Kijiografia kwa ajili ya kufanya tathmini kazi hii inanuwia kuziba pengo hilo kuweza kujua rasmi hali ya uoto wa asili na matumizi ya maeneo haya yakoje kwa sasa. Katika kufanya tathimini hiyo kazi hii imetumia picha maalum za satelaiti zioneshazo ukijani wa miti, sura ya nchi ili kuweza kujua hali na mabadiliko na takwimu za mwingiliano kati ya binadamu na wanyamapori katika kipindi cha miaka 28 iliyopita. Tathmini hii inawezesha kujua mwenendo wa uoto wa asili na hali yake ya sasa kwa ajili ya kuwajuza watoa maamuzi na wadau wengine. Kufanikisha hili picha za satelaiti zinazoonesha mwenendo wa ukijani wa miti na sura ya nchi ili kuwezajua kama kuna mabadiliko zimetathminiwa. Kwa upande mwingine, jumla ya matukio ya mwingiliano kati ya bindamu na wanyamapori imetathminiwa pia ili kuwezakujua uwepo fulani wa wanyamapori na mwenendo wa matukio hayo. Matokeo ya tathmini yanaonesha kwamba uoto wa asili katika jumuiya unaharibika kama ilivyotegemewa kwasababu ya mapungufu yatokanayo na uanzishwaji na uendeshwaji wa jumuiya hizi.

Mwenendo wa uoto wa asili ni chanya kidogo lakini shughuli za kibinadamu zimekuwa zikiongezeka mara baada ya kuanzishwa kwake. Aidha aina mbali mbali za uoto huo wa asili umekuwa ukibadilika pia kutoka aina moja kwenda nyingine. Misitu ya miombo ambayo ndiyo inayochukua eneo kubwa zaidi katika eneo hili imeathiriwa zaidi na mashamba na nyasi japo navyo vimekuwa vikiongezeka pia katika aina zingine za uoto wa asili. Zaidi ni kwamba matukio ya wanyama waharibifu karibu na jumuiya hii yameongezeka sambamba na ongezeko la watu. Hivyo basi, hakuna uhusiano chanya kati ya uwepo wa jumuiya hii na hali yake ya kimazingira. Hata hivyo tathimini zingine za kiikolojia na zisizo za kiikolojia kama vile mwenendo wa idadi ya wanyamapori na mvua ziangaliwe ili kuweza kujua vyanzo vingine zaidi zinavyochangia uharibifu. (Less)
Popular Abstract
It is widely believed that strategies for involving local people in conservation in the developing world have failed to achieve their goals of sustainable conservation and local development. Inadequate/passive local participation and unbalanced benefits sharing in conservation are the major mentioned reasons. In Tanzania wildlife management areas (WMAs) are one of the strategies to involve local people in conservation. WMAs started in 2003 around the country’s national parks and game parks bordering villages. Success and challenges about WMAs have already been written about but not their natural land cover/use conditions. Because of such local people dissatisfactions, it is therefore thought that natural land cover/use conditions of WMAs... (More)
It is widely believed that strategies for involving local people in conservation in the developing world have failed to achieve their goals of sustainable conservation and local development. Inadequate/passive local participation and unbalanced benefits sharing in conservation are the major mentioned reasons. In Tanzania wildlife management areas (WMAs) are one of the strategies to involve local people in conservation. WMAs started in 2003 around the country’s national parks and game parks bordering villages. Success and challenges about WMAs have already been written about but not their natural land cover/use conditions. Because of such local people dissatisfactions, it is therefore thought that natural land cover/use conditions of WMAs have been be damaged by establishment of more profitable activities like agriculture.

By using satellite images and a computer-based software known as Geographical Information System (GIS) which is used for geographical data analysis this study is looking into the current conditions of one of WMAs in Southern Tanzania to understand the trend, change and predict its future for informing decision makers and other stakeholders. To achieve that tree greenness trend, land cover/use characteristics and change, and human-wildlife conflicts datasets over the last twenty-eight years are analyzed. Tree greenness trend and land cover/use change analyses of satellite images provide details about land cover/use conditions of an area. Summarized human-wildlife conflicts data as total number of conflict incidents help understand the extent of wildlife species presence within a WMA as conditioned by conservation or degradation activities. Conflict data are also useful for understanding the trend.

The results show that WMA area is degrading as predicted by dissatisfaction of local people by its establishment and benefits. Tree greenness trend is slightly positive but human land use activities (agriculture) within the study area have been increasing after its establishment. Also, other land cover types like forests have been transitioning from one type to another. Different land cover/use types like agriculture have been growing on deciduous forest which is the largest category in the area. Problem animal incidents have also been increasing with an increase of human population size around the area. Therefore, WMA has not resulted into improved conditions of an area. To protect an area for sustainable conservation and development it is important to revise the practice of involving local people and benefit sharing to encourage direct and more local participation. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Mwakoba, Kharid LU
supervisor
organization
course
GISM01 20192
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
geography, Geographical Information Systems, GIS, remote sensing, wildlife management area, Tanzania
publication/series
Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science
report number
125
language
English
additional info
Field interviews that I conducted for this paper were part of the project activities of my former employer-Frankfurt Zoological Society, Tanzania.
id
9033965
date added to LUP
2021-01-06 23:47:26
date last changed
2021-01-06 23:47:26
@misc{9033965,
  abstract     = {Community based approaches to conservation in the developing world have generally been criticized for not meeting their goals of sustainable conservation and local development. Inadequate local participation and inequitable benefits sharing among others are some of the major concerns. In Tanzania wildlife management areas (WMAs) are one of the forms of community-based wildlife conservation initiatives established since 2003 around country’s extensive network of protected areas bordering villages. Success stories and challenges about WMAs have already been written about but not land cover/use conditions of such areas under the current debate about their role to local communities. It is therefore expected that land cover/use conditions of the WMAs would be deteriorating. 

By using Remote Sensing data and Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis tool this study intends to fill in that gap by analyzing normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover/use characteristics and change and human-wildlife conflicts datasets over the last twenty-eight years to understand the trend, current conditions and predict its future for informing decision makers and other involved stakeholders. NDVI trend analysis and land cover/use change detection have been carried to assess land cover/use conditions of an area. Human-wildlife conflicts data have also been summarized as total number of conflict incidents to gain some insights about the extent of wildlife species presence as conditioned by conservation or degradation activities. Conflicts data are also useful to understand the trend. 

The results show that ecosystem of the WMA is degrading as predicted by the criticisms leveled against the establishment processes and management of WMAs in the country. Tree greenness trend is slightly positive but human land use activities (farming and grazing) within the study area have been increasing after its establishment while other land cover types have been transitioning from one type to another. Different land cover/use types like agriculture especially have been growing on deciduous forest which is the largest land cover category in the area. Because the area size of deciduous forest has slightly increased it has also been growing on all other land cover/use types. Furthermore, problem animal incidents have also been increasing with an increase of human population size in the area. Therefore, there is no positive correlation between WMA and its ecosystem. However, for a complete analysis of the ecosystem other ecological and non-ecological variables such as wildlife population trend and rainfall should also be analyzed.},
  author       = {Mwakoba, Kharid},
  keyword      = {geography,Geographical Information Systems,GIS,remote sensing,wildlife management area,Tanzania},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science},
  title        = {Remote sensing analysis of land cover/use conditions of community-based wildlife conservation areas in Tanzania},
  year         = {2021},
}