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Automatiserat beslutsfattande inom den offentliga förvaltningen - En undersökning av den rättsliga regleringen och möjligheterna till insyn

Myrenius, Joel LU (2020) JURM02 20202
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Inom den offentliga förvaltningen är det allt vanligare att beslut fattas automatiserat. Med automatiserat beslutsfattande menas att beslut fattas maskinellt utan att någon mänsklig beslutsfattare är en del av beslutsfattandet. I Sverige fattas dagligen hundratusentals beslut utan mänsklig inblandning. Frågor om automatiserat beslutsfattande har fått ökad uppmärksamhet genom en bestämmelse i den nya förvaltningslagen (2017:900), FL, och genom art. 22 i EU:s allmänna dataskyddsförordning, GDPR.

Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utreda och analysera den rättsliga regleringen av automatiserat beslutsfattande inom den offentliga förvaltningen. Uppsatsen inriktar sig särskilt på två centrala delar av automatiserat beslutsfattande. Den... (More)
Inom den offentliga förvaltningen är det allt vanligare att beslut fattas automatiserat. Med automatiserat beslutsfattande menas att beslut fattas maskinellt utan att någon mänsklig beslutsfattare är en del av beslutsfattandet. I Sverige fattas dagligen hundratusentals beslut utan mänsklig inblandning. Frågor om automatiserat beslutsfattande har fått ökad uppmärksamhet genom en bestämmelse i den nya förvaltningslagen (2017:900), FL, och genom art. 22 i EU:s allmänna dataskyddsförordning, GDPR.

Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utreda och analysera den rättsliga regleringen av automatiserat beslutsfattande inom den offentliga förvaltningen. Uppsatsen inriktar sig särskilt på två centrala delar av automatiserat beslutsfattande. Den första delen syftar till att utreda och analysera det rättsliga stödet för att fatta automatiserade beslut. Den andra delen syftar till att undersöka och analysera vilka möjligheter till insyn som finns när automatiserat beslutsfattande används inom den offentliga förvaltningen. För att undersöka detta har utgångspunkt tagits i den rättsdogmatiska metoden. I uppsatsen används en EU-rättsligt metod för att hantera de specifika EU-rättsliga källorna.

Det allmänna uttryckliga lagstödet för automatiserat beslutsfattande inom den offentliga förvaltningen är 28 § FL. Bestämmelsen anses tydliggöra att automatiserade beslut som utgångspunkt kan fattas utan stöd i någon annan särskild reglering. Viss specialreglering av automatiserat beslutsfattande i lag och förordning finns dock fortfarande. Om kommuner har rättsligt stöd för användandet av automatiserat beslutsfattande råder det delade meningar om, vilket diskuteras närmare i uppsatsen. Det kan dock konstateras att flera kommuner använder automatiserat beslutsfattande.

Genom art. 22 GDPR är automatiserat beslutsfattande även reglerat på en EU-rättslig nivå. Utifrån det undersökta materialet kan det konstateras att artikeln är svårtolkad och att den exakta innebörden av artikeln till viss del är oklar.

Möjligheterna till insyn i det automatiserade beslutsfattandet undersöks i förhållande till offentlighetsprincipen, rätten till partsinsyn och rätten till insyn med stöd av GDPR. Slutsatsen är att gällande rätt inte, i varje enskilt fall, ger någon möjlighet till insyn i den offentliga förvaltningens användning av algoritmer och datorprogram för automatiserat beslutsfattande. (Less)
Abstract
The use of automated decision-making is becoming more common in the public administration. Automated decision-making means that decisions are made automatically without any individual being part of the decision-making. In Sweden, hundreds of thousands of decisions are made every day without human involvement. Automated decision-making have received increased attention through a provision in the new Administrative Procedure Act (2017:900), FL, and through Article 22 in the EU General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR.

The purpose of this essay is to examine and analyse the regulation of automated decision-making in the public administration. The essay focuses on two central parts of automated decision-making. The first part aims to... (More)
The use of automated decision-making is becoming more common in the public administration. Automated decision-making means that decisions are made automatically without any individual being part of the decision-making. In Sweden, hundreds of thousands of decisions are made every day without human involvement. Automated decision-making have received increased attention through a provision in the new Administrative Procedure Act (2017:900), FL, and through Article 22 in the EU General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR.

The purpose of this essay is to examine and analyse the regulation of automated decision-making in the public administration. The essay focuses on two central parts of automated decision-making. The first part aims to examine and analyse the legal support for making automated decisions. The second part aims to examine and analyse the opportunities for transparency that exist when automated decision-making is used in the public administration. In order to investigate these issues, the legal dogmatic method has been used. A EU legal method has been used to deal with the specific EU legal sources.

The general explicit legal support for automated decision-making in the public administration can be found in 28 § FL. The provision is considered to clarify that automated decisions, as a starting point, can be made without support in any other regulation. However, some special regulation of automated decision-making still exist. There are divided opinions whether municipalities have legal support for the use of automated decision-making, which is discussed more in this essay. However, it can be stated that several municipalities are using automated decision-making today.

Through Article 22 GDPR are automated decision-making regulated at an EU legal level. Based on the examined material, it can be stated that the article is difficult to interpret and that the exact meaning of the article in some ways are unclear.

The possibilities for transparency in automated decision-making are in this essay examined in relation to the principle of public access to official records, the right to party insight, and the right to transparency based on articles in the GDPR. The conclusion is that the applicable law doesn´t, in every individual case, provide any opportunity for transparency in the public administration´s use of algorithms and computer programs for automated decision-making. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Myrenius, Joel LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Automated decision-making in the public administration - A study of the legal regulation and the possibilities for transparency
course
JURM02 20202
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt, Automatiserat beslutsfattande
language
Swedish
id
9034351
date added to LUP
2021-01-21 14:02:51
date last changed
2021-01-21 14:02:51
@misc{9034351,
  abstract     = {The use of automated decision-making is becoming more common in the public administration. Automated decision-making means that decisions are made automatically without any individual being part of the decision-making. In Sweden, hundreds of thousands of decisions are made every day without human involvement. Automated decision-making have received increased attention through a provision in the new Administrative Procedure Act (2017:900), FL, and through Article 22 in the EU General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR. 

The purpose of this essay is to examine and analyse the regulation of automated decision-making in the public administration. The essay focuses on two central parts of automated decision-making. The first part aims to examine and analyse the legal support for making automated decisions. The second part aims to examine and analyse the opportunities for transparency that exist when automated decision-making is used in the public administration. In order to investigate these issues, the legal dogmatic method has been used. A EU legal method has been used to deal with the specific EU legal sources. 

The general explicit legal support for automated decision-making in the public administration can be found in 28 § FL. The provision is considered to clarify that automated decisions, as a starting point, can be made without support in any other regulation. However, some special regulation of automated decision-making still exist. There are divided opinions whether municipalities have legal support for the use of automated decision-making, which is discussed more in this essay. However, it can be stated that several municipalities are using automated decision-making today. 

Through Article 22 GDPR are automated decision-making regulated at an EU legal level. Based on the examined material, it can be stated that the article is difficult to interpret and that the exact meaning of the article in some ways are unclear. 

The possibilities for transparency in automated decision-making are in this essay examined in relation to the principle of public access to official records, the right to party insight, and the right to transparency based on articles in the GDPR. The conclusion is that the applicable law doesn´t, in every individual case, provide any opportunity for transparency in the public administration´s use of algorithms and computer programs for automated decision-making.},
  author       = {Myrenius, Joel},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt,Automatiserat beslutsfattande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Automatiserat beslutsfattande inom den offentliga förvaltningen - En undersökning av den rättsliga regleringen och möjligheterna till insyn},
  year         = {2020},
}