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Emergency Preparedness Process Proposal for Radiological Incidents at Accelerator Driven Facilities

Stieren, Leonie Victoria LU (2021) VBRM15 20201
Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety
Abstract
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an accelerator driven research facility under construction. Once commissioned, a linear accelerator supplies protons to a target, whereupon neutrons are generated through a process called “spallation”. Neutron beam time will be available for a variety of scientific experiments. Ionising radiation and the activation of material exposed to it is a consequence of this process. To prepare for undesired events emergency preparedness for radiological incidents is indispensable. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate what considerations are crucial for emergency
preparedness at accelerator facilities by investigating similar facilities through observations and interviews. To subsequently design,... (More)
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an accelerator driven research facility under construction. Once commissioned, a linear accelerator supplies protons to a target, whereupon neutrons are generated through a process called “spallation”. Neutron beam time will be available for a variety of scientific experiments. Ionising radiation and the activation of material exposed to it is a consequence of this process. To prepare for undesired events emergency preparedness for radiological incidents is indispensable. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate what considerations are crucial for emergency
preparedness at accelerator facilities by investigating similar facilities through observations and interviews. To subsequently design, propose and implement an emergency preparedness process for radiological incidents at the ESS. The process is an iterative cycle with several activities. The key activities include the development of a concept of operation
describing intervention procedures and mitigation actions in case of an emergency. The process was evaluated in a table top exercise and let to the conclusion that the design provides a good starting point and will gain more maturity in the upcoming improvement iterations. Based on the exercise results, the research suggests establishing an emergency task force at the ESS facility to enable sufficient and consistent risk communication and interoperability among different stakeholders. Further, it suggests to consider designing and
facilitating progressive types of exercises to enhance preparedness. Overall, this thesis provides valuable first-hand insights on aspects to consider for designing emergency preparedness and common challenges planners at accelerator facilities have to overcome. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Large accelerator driven research facilities are often a mystery to people. This is despite the fact that these complex instruments allow us to investigate different properties and dynamics of materials and (literally!) accelerate scientific discoveries of great importance.

Surprisingly, one of the world's most powerful accelerators is currently being built right in the northeast of the small university town of Lund. The European Spallation Source (ESS) - a neutron producing accelerator driven facility presently constructed as joint effort of 15 European countries. Once the facility is being commissioned a linear accelerator will accelerate protons to 96% of the speed of light and supply them to a rotating target, whereupon neutrons are... (More)
Large accelerator driven research facilities are often a mystery to people. This is despite the fact that these complex instruments allow us to investigate different properties and dynamics of materials and (literally!) accelerate scientific discoveries of great importance.

Surprisingly, one of the world's most powerful accelerators is currently being built right in the northeast of the small university town of Lund. The European Spallation Source (ESS) - a neutron producing accelerator driven facility presently constructed as joint effort of 15 European countries. Once the facility is being commissioned a linear accelerator will accelerate protons to 96% of the speed of light and supply them to a rotating target, whereupon neutrons are generated through a process called spallation. At the end of 2023,
the ESS will offer neutron beam time to a broad variety of scientific experiments. The facility can be compared to a big microscope enabling scientist to study matter from proteins to entire building components. Ionising radiation and the activation of material exposed to it is a consequence of the process and a number of potential radiological incidents have been
identified for the ESS facility.

The objective of this study is to develop an emergency preparedness process for radiological incidents for the ESS. Therefore, the research explores approaches from similar accelerator facilities and nuclear power plants. Based on the experience obtained through literature, interviews and observations, the thesis identifies differences and similarities among the facilities. In determining what considerations are crucial for emergency preparedness planning, the research establishes several design criteria for the ESS. Subsequently, an emergency preparedness process for radiological incidents tailored to the ESS needs is proposed and implemented.

Based on the results of different evaluation exercises the research concludes that the process provides a sufficient planning base. In addition, suggestions how to achieve more maturity in preparedness in the future are provided. Overall, this thesis provides valuable first-hand insights on which aspects to consider for designing emergency preparedness and which common challenges planners at accelerator facilities have to overcome. Lastly, it is believed that in an environment where such excellent science is performed, even more excellent and progressive emergency preparedness planning is attainable. (Less)
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author
Stieren, Leonie Victoria LU
supervisor
organization
course
VBRM15 20201
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
accelerator driven facilities, emergency response, crisis management, radiological hazard
language
English
id
9041845
date added to LUP
2021-03-22 14:44:53
date last changed
2021-03-22 14:44:53
@misc{9041845,
  abstract     = {The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an accelerator driven research facility under construction. Once commissioned, a linear accelerator supplies protons to a target, whereupon neutrons are generated through a process called “spallation”. Neutron beam time will be available for a variety of scientific experiments. Ionising radiation and the activation of material exposed to it is a consequence of this process. To prepare for undesired events emergency preparedness for radiological incidents is indispensable. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate what considerations are crucial for emergency
preparedness at accelerator facilities by investigating similar facilities through observations and interviews. To subsequently design, propose and implement an emergency preparedness process for radiological incidents at the ESS. The process is an iterative cycle with several activities. The key activities include the development of a concept of operation
describing intervention procedures and mitigation actions in case of an emergency. The process was evaluated in a table top exercise and let to the conclusion that the design provides a good starting point and will gain more maturity in the upcoming improvement iterations. Based on the exercise results, the research suggests establishing an emergency task force at the ESS facility to enable sufficient and consistent risk communication and interoperability among different stakeholders. Further, it suggests to consider designing and
facilitating progressive types of exercises to enhance preparedness. Overall, this thesis provides valuable first-hand insights on aspects to consider for designing emergency preparedness and common challenges planners at accelerator facilities have to overcome.},
  author       = {Stieren, Leonie Victoria},
  keyword      = {accelerator driven facilities,emergency response,crisis management,radiological hazard},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Emergency Preparedness Process Proposal for Radiological Incidents at Accelerator Driven Facilities},
  year         = {2021},
}