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Rätten till en rättvis rättegång

Lind, Jenny LU (2010) JURM01 20101
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Europarådet beslöt den 8 december 1949 att rekommendera medlemsländerna att utarbeta en konvention som skulle innefatta effektiva garantier för individen angående åtnjutandet av mänskliga rättigheter. Lagen (1994:1219) om den europeiska konventionen för mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (EKMR) undertecknades i Rom den 4 november 1950 och trädde sedan ikraft den 3 september 1953.
I konventionen som trädde ikraft i Sverige den 1 januari 1995 anges det att tillsammans med de ändringar och tillägg som har utförts i vissa där angivna tilläggsprotokoll, skall gälla som svensk lag. Den har numera grundlagsförankring i regeringsformen (1974:152) (RF) 2 kap. 23 § och kan därmed tillämpas direkt av svenska domstolar och... (More)
Europarådet beslöt den 8 december 1949 att rekommendera medlemsländerna att utarbeta en konvention som skulle innefatta effektiva garantier för individen angående åtnjutandet av mänskliga rättigheter. Lagen (1994:1219) om den europeiska konventionen för mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (EKMR) undertecknades i Rom den 4 november 1950 och trädde sedan ikraft den 3 september 1953.
I konventionen som trädde ikraft i Sverige den 1 januari 1995 anges det att tillsammans med de ändringar och tillägg som har utförts i vissa där angivna tilläggsprotokoll, skall gälla som svensk lag. Den har numera grundlagsförankring i regeringsformen (1974:152) (RF) 2 kap. 23 § och kan därmed tillämpas direkt av svenska domstolar och myndigheter.
Några allmänna principer angående tolkning för internationella traktater föreligger i Wienkonventionen om traktaträtt, i artiklarna 31 och 32. Vidare skall EKMR tydas i ljuset av samhällsutvecklingen och förändringar i rättsuppfattningen inom konventionsstaterna.
De klagomål som Europadomstolen för de mänskliga rättigheterna (EMRD) behandlar rör främst EKMR artikel 6. Att få sin sak prövad inom rimlig tid samt rätten för den tilltalade att förhöra målsägande och vittnen utgör vidare beståndsdelarna i rätten till en rättvis rättegång. Varje enskild individ skall under en stats jurisdiktion ha rätt till domstolsprövning och rätten till en rättvis rättegång är ett grundläggande element i artikeln.
EKMR saknar i jämförelse med Rättegångsbalken (1942:740) RB direkta regler om till exempel vittnen och skriftliga utsagor och innehåller heller inte någon skyldighet för medborgarna att vittna som det däremot gör enligt RB. Det är medborgarnas fri – och rättigheter i förhållande till staten som EKMR tar sikte på. Både konventionen och RB behandlar rätten till en muntlig förhandling och detta är också utgångspunkten att förhålla sig till vid förhandlingen enligt båda regelverken.
Syftet med denna uppsats är att skildra utvecklingen av EKMR, med särskilt fokus på artikel 6 och genom flertalet mål belysa praxis betydelse och utveckling. Intentionen är även att jämföra konventionen med RB framförallt gällande den tilltalandes rätt att förhöra målsägande och vittnen. Vittnen och målsägande har alltid haft en utsatt position i rättsprocessen och vittnesmålet utgör ett av de viktigaste bevismedlen för domstolarna. Avslutningsvis förs en analys angående anonyma vittnen i svensk rätt och hur de svenska domstolarna förhåller sig till den ökade normprövningsrätt de blivit tilldelade genom införlivandet av konventionen och i vilken utsträckning EKMR tillämpas. Personligen anser jag att anonymitet kring vittne inte är att föredra eftersom det strider mot en rättvis rättegång enligt EKMR artikel 6 och medför rättsosäkerhet. Vad det gäller uppfattningen och tillämpningen av konventionen så är den varierande bland yrkesverksamma jurister och rättsvetare. Att förvalta den ökade normprövningsrätt torde motivera de svenska domstolarna med tanke på att de nu också kan avgöra frågor av politisk karaktär. (Less)
Abstract
The Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly decided on 8 December 1949 to recommend the member states to create a convention including effective guaranties for the individual with regards to human rights. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and the Fundamental Freedoms (1994:1219) ECHR was signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and was enforced on 3 September 1953.
The treaty, enforced in Sweden on 1 January 1995 dictates that it together with additions and amendments should apply as Swedish law. The treaty now has constitutional status (1974:152) (RF) 2 kap. 23 § and can therefore be directly applied by Swedish courts and authorities.
Some general principles with regards to the interpretation of international treaties... (More)
The Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly decided on 8 December 1949 to recommend the member states to create a convention including effective guaranties for the individual with regards to human rights. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and the Fundamental Freedoms (1994:1219) ECHR was signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and was enforced on 3 September 1953.
The treaty, enforced in Sweden on 1 January 1995 dictates that it together with additions and amendments should apply as Swedish law. The treaty now has constitutional status (1974:152) (RF) 2 kap. 23 § and can therefore be directly applied by Swedish courts and authorities.
Some general principles with regards to the interpretation of international treaties exists in the Vienna Convention with regard to treaty law in Articles 31 and 32. Furthermore, the ECHR should be interpreted in light of the development of society and changes of how legislation is perceived upon in the member states. The complaints considered by the convention mainly regard Article 6, and the right to have a trial within a reasonable timeframe and the right of the accused to cross-examine witnesses and victims are the components of the right to a fair trial.
Each individual should under state jurisdiction have the right to a fair trial, and this is a fundamental element of this Article.
The ECHR has no correlation with the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure (1942:740) in the direct regime such as witnesses and written statements and also does not include any obligations for citizens to testify, something that is does under the Swedich Code of Judicial Procedure. It is the citizens' freedom- and the rights in relation of the State which ECHR focuses on. Both the ECHR and the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure deal with the right to a fair hearing and this is also the starting point to relate to at the hearing under both regimes.
The purpose of this thesis is to highlight the development of the ECHR, with particular focus on Article 6, by illuminating a number of cases and the importance of case law for the evolution of the Convention.

The purpose also is to compare the ECHR with the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure, in particular concerning the rights the accused have to cross-examine witnesses and victims. Witnesses and victims have always had a vulnerable position and testimony is one of the most important type of evidence for courts.
To conclude, I conducted a discussion around my reflections about anonymous witnesses and how the Swedish courts relate to the application of the ECHR.
The conclusion is that I personally think that the anonymity of witnesses is not preferable because it brings uncertainty of the legal system. I further believe that perception and application of the ECHR varies among practising laywers. The management of the increased applicational influence the treaty enforced should motivate the Swedish courts, in particular given that they now also can rule politically characterised cases. (Less)
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author
Lind, Jenny LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20101
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
EG-rätt, Processrätt
language
Swedish
id
1628181
date added to LUP
2010-07-14 13:53:16
date last changed
2010-07-14 13:53:16
@misc{1628181,
  abstract     = {The Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly decided on 8 December 1949 to recommend the member states to create a convention including effective guaranties for the individual with regards to human rights. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and the Fundamental Freedoms (1994:1219) ECHR was signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and was enforced on 3 September 1953.
	The treaty, enforced in Sweden on 1 January 1995 dictates that it together with additions and amendments should apply as Swedish law. The treaty now has constitutional status (1974:152) (RF) 2 kap. 23 § and can therefore be directly applied by Swedish courts and authorities. 
	Some general principles with regards to the interpretation of international treaties exists in the Vienna Convention with regard to treaty law in Articles 31 and 32. Furthermore, the ECHR should be interpreted in light of the development of society and changes of how legislation is perceived upon in the member states. The complaints considered by the convention mainly regard Article 6, and the right to have a trial within a reasonable timeframe and the right of the accused to cross-examine witnesses and victims are the components of the right to a fair trial.
	Each individual should under state jurisdiction have the right to a fair trial, and this is a fundamental element of this Article. 
	The ECHR has no correlation with the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure (1942:740) in the direct regime such as witnesses and written statements and also does not include any obligations for citizens to testify, something that is does under the Swedich Code of Judicial Procedure. It is the citizens' freedom- and the rights in relation of the State which ECHR focuses on. Both the ECHR and the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure deal with the right to a fair hearing and this is also the starting point to relate to at the hearing under both regimes. 
	The purpose of this thesis is to highlight the development of the ECHR, with particular focus on Article 6, by illuminating a number of cases and the importance of case law for the evolution of the Convention. 

The purpose also is to compare the ECHR with the Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure, in particular concerning the rights the accused have to cross-examine witnesses and victims. Witnesses and victims have always had a vulnerable position and testimony is one of the most important type of evidence for courts.
		To conclude, I conducted a discussion around my reflections about anonymous witnesses and how the Swedish courts relate to the application of the ECHR.
	The conclusion is that I personally think that the anonymity of witnesses is not preferable because it brings uncertainty of the legal system. I further believe that perception and application of the ECHR varies among practising laywers. The management of the increased applicational influence the treaty enforced should motivate the Swedish courts, in particular given that they now also can rule politically characterised cases.},
  author       = {Lind, Jenny},
  keyword      = {EG-rätt,Processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rätten till en rättvis rättegång},
  year         = {2010},
}