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Edition av elektroniskt material – särskilt om e-post

Hansson, Martin LU (2010) JURM01 20101
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Idag ökar mängden information hela tiden. Mycket av informationen finns bara i elektronisk form och därför har elektronisk bevisning blivit allt vikti-gare. E-post är en form av elektronisk bevisning som har blivit ett alltmer betydelsefullt kommunikationsmedel och är en viktig del av såväl privat- som affärsliv. Det utgör ett snabbt och lättillgängligt kommunikationssätt som på många sätt skiljer sig från de mer traditionella, som exempelvis tele-fonsamtal eller brev. Information som kan vara till nytta för en parten kan ofta finnas hos dennes motpart. Genom ett editionsföreläggande kan en sö-kande part under vissa förutsättningar få ut information hos motparten. Edi-tion är dock endast möjligt beträffande skriftliga... (More)
Sammanfattning
Idag ökar mängden information hela tiden. Mycket av informationen finns bara i elektronisk form och därför har elektronisk bevisning blivit allt vikti-gare. E-post är en form av elektronisk bevisning som har blivit ett alltmer betydelsefullt kommunikationsmedel och är en viktig del av såväl privat- som affärsliv. Det utgör ett snabbt och lättillgängligt kommunikationssätt som på många sätt skiljer sig från de mer traditionella, som exempelvis tele-fonsamtal eller brev. Information som kan vara till nytta för en parten kan ofta finnas hos dennes motpart. Genom ett editionsföreläggande kan en sö-kande part under vissa förutsättningar få ut information hos motparten. Edi-tion är dock endast möjligt beträffande skriftliga handlingar. I arbetet undersöks problemen med elektronisk bevisning med särskild fokus på tre problemområden som kan kopplas samman med edition av e-post.

Elektronisk bevisning skiljer sig från traditionell pappersbaserade informa-tion. Skillnaderna kan grovt kategoriseras i tre olika kategorier: volym, till-gänglighet och integritet. Volymproblemet hänger bland annat samman med hur elektronisk information skapas och möjligheterna att lagra den. Till-gängligheten av elektronisk information är exempelvis beroende av vilket format informationen lagrats i, medan integritetsproblemet kan aktualisera frågor om hur man vet att informationen inte manipulerats. Av praxis fram-går att av editionsyrkanden med avseende på elektroniskt material kan bifal-las. Elektronisk bevisning väcker även flera bevisrättsliga frågor, exempelvis vilka faktorer som ska användas vid bevisvärderingen och om det föreligger någon på förhand bestämd placering av bevisbördan.

Det första problemet som behandlas är hur en part ska få reda på tillräckligt mycket om den information som motparten besitter för att kunna uppfylla de krav på att det ska vara möjligt att identifiera handlingen ifråga som upp-ställs för att ett editionsföreläggande ska kunna meddelas. De möjligheter som undersöks är de som erbjuds genom editionsförhör och 42 kap. 8 § RB. Vidare undersöks hur editionsyrkandet ska utformas för att en part ska kun-na få bifall till ett editionsyrkande beträffande ett e-postmeddelande och vad som kan anses omfattas av ett sådant yrkande. Slutligen undersöks fördelningen av rättegångskostnader, då det kan uppstå stora kostnader vid edition av elektroniskt material.

De viktigaste slutsatserna i arbetet är att elektronisk bevisning, trots flera problem hänförliga till bevisformatet, i princip inte skiljer sig från pappers-baserad information, då det avgörande för bevisningen inte är materialets format utan dess innehåll. Däremot kan formatet komma att betydelse om bevisningens autenticitet ifrågasätts. Det går inte heller att ställa upp några generella riktlinjer för exempelvis placering av bevisbördan. Elektroniskt material kan omfattas av ett editionsföreläggande och därmed kan även e-postmeddelanden komma att lämnas ut. (Less)
Abstract
The amount of information is constantly increasing, much of which is only available in electronic form. Therefore the role of electronic evidence has become increasingly important. One form of such electronic evidence is e-mail, which has become an important part of both private and business life, due to the importance of quick and accessible means of communication. E-mail communication differs from the more traditional means of communica-tion, such as telephone calls or ordinary mail, both as regards to the form of evidence as well as the way people express themselves. In legal proceedings information beneficial to one party is often in the possession of the counter-party. Through a disclosure order (sv. edition), a party can under... (More)
The amount of information is constantly increasing, much of which is only available in electronic form. Therefore the role of electronic evidence has become increasingly important. One form of such electronic evidence is e-mail, which has become an important part of both private and business life, due to the importance of quick and accessible means of communication. E-mail communication differs from the more traditional means of communica-tion, such as telephone calls or ordinary mail, both as regards to the form of evidence as well as the way people express themselves. In legal proceedings information beneficial to one party is often in the possession of the counter-party. Through a disclosure order (sv. edition), a party can under certain circumstances obtain evidence from the counterparty through the assistance of a court. Such an order is only possible with regards to documents. This thesis examines the problems of electronic evidence, focusing on three prob-lematic areas in respect of the question of disclosure of e-mail evidence un-der Swedish procedural law.

Electronic evidence is different from traditional paper-based information. The differences can roughly be categorized into three categories: volume, availability and integrity. Problems attributable to volume, often relates to the way electronic information is created and stored. The availability of electronic data depends on the format that has been used to store the infor-mation and, finally, integrity issues may raise questions about how to make sure that the information has not been tampered with. Case law from the Swedish Supreme Court establishes that disclosure orders concerning elec-tronic evidence may be granted. Apart from that, electronic evidence also raises several evidentiary issues, such as which factors should be taken into account when evaluating the evidence and whether there is a predetermined placement of the burden of proof. Of the areas investigated the first problem addressed is how a party may obtain enough information about the material in possession of the counterparty, to be able to fulfill the identification re-quirements in order to have a disclosure order granted. The options for find-ing information being examined are questioning of the persons in possession of the documents and the rule 42 kap. 8 § of the Swedish procedural code. The second area investigated is the way in which to construct a successful claim regarding a disclosure order of e-mail. Finally, the distributions of costs are examined, as disclosure of electronic materials can be expensive.

This paper suggests that electronic evidence, despite several problems, is in principle no different from paper-based information, since the crucial part as regards the evidence is the content of the material rather than the form. Even so the format may be important when the authenticity of the evidence is in dispute. It is not possible to set up general guidelines regarding the placement of the burden of proof or other evidentiary rules as this has to be judged on a case by case basis. Electronic material can be covered by a dis-closure order and thus e-mail messages can also be disclosed. (Less)
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author
Hansson, Martin LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20101
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Processrätt
language
Swedish
id
1628288
date added to LUP
2010-07-16 14:18:22
date last changed
2010-07-16 14:18:22
@misc{1628288,
  abstract     = {The amount of information is constantly increasing, much of which is only available in electronic form. Therefore the role of electronic evidence has become increasingly important. One form of such electronic evidence is e-mail, which has become an important part of both private and business life, due to the importance of quick and accessible means of communication. E-mail communication differs from the more traditional means of communica-tion, such as telephone calls or ordinary mail, both as regards to the form of evidence as well as the way people express themselves. In legal proceedings information beneficial to one party is often in the possession of the counter-party. Through a disclosure order (sv. edition), a party can under certain circumstances obtain evidence from the counterparty through the assistance of a court. Such an order is only possible with regards to documents. This thesis examines the problems of electronic evidence, focusing on three prob-lematic areas in respect of the question of disclosure of e-mail evidence un-der Swedish procedural law.

Electronic evidence is different from traditional paper-based information. The differences can roughly be categorized into three categories: volume, availability and integrity. Problems attributable to volume, often relates to the way electronic information is created and stored. The availability of electronic data depends on the format that has been used to store the infor-mation and, finally, integrity issues may raise questions about how to make sure that the information has not been tampered with. Case law from the Swedish Supreme Court establishes that disclosure orders concerning elec-tronic evidence may be granted. Apart from that, electronic evidence also raises several evidentiary issues, such as which factors should be taken into account when evaluating the evidence and whether there is a predetermined placement of the burden of proof. Of the areas investigated the first problem addressed is how a party may obtain enough information about the material in possession of the counterparty, to be able to fulfill the identification re-quirements in order to have a disclosure order granted. The options for find-ing information being examined are questioning of the persons in possession of the documents and the rule 42 kap. 8 § of the Swedish procedural code. The second area investigated is the way in which to construct a successful claim regarding a disclosure order of e-mail. Finally, the distributions of costs are examined, as disclosure of electronic materials can be expensive.

This paper suggests that electronic evidence, despite several problems, is in principle no different from paper-based information, since the crucial part as regards the evidence is the content of the material rather than the form. Even so the format may be important when the authenticity of the evidence is in dispute. It is not possible to set up general guidelines regarding the placement of the burden of proof or other evidentiary rules as this has to be judged on a case by case basis. Electronic material can be covered by a dis-closure order and thus e-mail messages can also be disclosed.},
  author       = {Hansson, Martin},
  keyword      = {Processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Edition av elektroniskt material – särskilt om e-post},
  year         = {2010},
}