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Att sko sig på barns bekostnad - vilken betydelse bör Barnkonventionen ha för barn i skoindustrin?

Kvernby, Karolina LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen behandlar vilken betydelse FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter bör ha för barn i skoindustrin. För att besvara denna huvudfråga tar uppsatsen upp följande delfrågor:

- Hur ser situationen ut när det gäller barnarbete?
- Vad är FN:s Barnkonvention?
- Vem har ansvar för att Barnkonventionen efterlevs?
- Hur och var sker tillverkningen av skor?
- Vilka rutiner har skoföretag när det gäller att ta reda på hur och av vem deras varor har producerats? Regler kontra verkligheten.

Enligt artikel 32 i FN:s barnkonvention har ett barn rätt att skyddas mot ekonomiskt utnyttjande samt mot hårt arbete som skadar eller hindrar barnets skolgång eller äventyrar hälsan. Detta är ju väldigt fina ord, men frågan är om konventionen... (More)
Uppsatsen behandlar vilken betydelse FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter bör ha för barn i skoindustrin. För att besvara denna huvudfråga tar uppsatsen upp följande delfrågor:

- Hur ser situationen ut när det gäller barnarbete?
- Vad är FN:s Barnkonvention?
- Vem har ansvar för att Barnkonventionen efterlevs?
- Hur och var sker tillverkningen av skor?
- Vilka rutiner har skoföretag när det gäller att ta reda på hur och av vem deras varor har producerats? Regler kontra verkligheten.

Enligt artikel 32 i FN:s barnkonvention har ett barn rätt att skyddas mot ekonomiskt utnyttjande samt mot hårt arbete som skadar eller hindrar barnets skolgång eller äventyrar hälsan. Detta är ju väldigt fina ord, men frågan är om konventionen verkligen får sin avsedda effekt.

Att definiera barnarbete är inte helt enkelt. Inom engelskan skiljer man på ”work” och ”child labour”. Det sistnämnda är det som anses skadligt för barn. Man brukar räkna med att minst 250 miljoner barn i åldern 5-14 år sysslar med den här typen av arbete. I Asien är problemet särskilt omfattande där 153 miljoner barn arbetar.

Det finns ett tydligt samband mellan barnarbete och fattigdom. För att bryta den spiral av fattigdom som många länder har hamnat i är grunden att satsa på allmän utbildning.

Internationella konventioner har en viktig roll att spela då det handlar om att eliminera barnarbete. Den grundläggande tanken med FN:s barnkonvention är att barn ska respekteras. Det innebär att när en myndighet tar ett beslut som rör barn ska den utgå ifrån ett barnperspektiv.

Det är Barnrättskommittén, eller the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), som ser till att implementeringen av Barnkonventionen sker på rätt sätt. Kommittén ser också till att implementeringen sköts när det gäller de två frivilliga tilläggsprotokollen, det om barn i väpnade konflikter och det om handel med barn, barnprostitution och barnpornografi. Kommittén kan inte ta emot klagomål från individer, men ser till att barn kan åberopa sina rättigheter i exempelvis domstolar.

När det gäller just barnarbete inom skoindustrin är risken stor att barnen skadas av olika kemiska ämnen. Det är särskilt Krom-6 som är farligt på grund av dess cancerogena egenskaper. Många industrier har inte alltid den kunskap eller den vilja som krävs för att hantera dessa farliga ämnen.

Internationella organisationer, såsom OECD, ILO och IPEC, har länge kämpat för en säker arbetsmiljö och för att barnarbete inte ska förekomma. Det är bland annat deras förtjänst att många företag har valt att ta ett socialt ansvar och anta så kallade uppförandekoder. Dessa koder är något som har slagit igenom mer och mer i affärsvärlden.

En av de viktigaste slutsatserna i uppsatsen är att FN:s barnkonvention har en betydande roll att spela då det gäller barns rättigheter, men när det handlar om just barnarbete är det viktigaste att företag själva inser att de måste arbeta med den här frågan. För att driva ett framgångsrikt företag gäller det att man har ett brett, medmänskligt perspektiv, eftersom ryktet är så pass viktigt. Barnkonventionen bör alltså fortsätta att vara ett allmänt ramverk och ett mål för barn rättigheter. Andra viktiga slutsatser i uppsatsen är att en tydlig definition av begreppet barnarbete i Barnkonventionen skulle vara önskvärd och att Sverige bör inkorporera konventionen som en symbolisk markering. (Less)
Abstract
The essay investigates what meaning the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child should have to children in the shoe industry. To be able to answer this main issue the essay is divided into the following sub-categories:

- How does the situation look like when it comes to child labour?
- What is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
- Who is responsible for the observance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
- How and where are shoes produced?
- What routines do shoe companies have in order to find out how and by whom their articles have been produced? Rules verses reality.

According to article 32 in the convention, children have the right to be protected from economic... (More)
The essay investigates what meaning the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child should have to children in the shoe industry. To be able to answer this main issue the essay is divided into the following sub-categories:

- How does the situation look like when it comes to child labour?
- What is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
- Who is responsible for the observance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
- How and where are shoes produced?
- What routines do shoe companies have in order to find out how and by whom their articles have been produced? Rules verses reality.

According to article 32 in the convention, children have the right to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health. This sounds very good, but the question is if the convention really fulfills its purpose.

Defining child labour is not that easy. It has to be distinguished from “child work”, which is not harmful. At least 250 million children, from 5 to 14 years old, are involved in child labour. The problem is particularly large in Asia, where more than 153 million children are working.

There is a clear connection between child labour and poverty. To change that downward spiral of poverty, which many countries are seized in, the primary thing to invest in is public education.

International conventions have an important part to play when dealing with the elimination of child labour. The Convention on the Rights of the Child could be summarized by the following sentence: Children should be respected. That means that administrative authorities should base their decisions on a child perspective, if a child is involved.

The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is making sure that the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is made in the right way. The committee is also looking after the implementation of the two optional protocols, on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The committee can not receive complaints from individuals, but it makes sure that children can invoke their rights in court for example.

When it comes to child labour in the shoe industry, there is a big risk that children are harmed by different chemical substances. Chrome-6 is especially dangerous because of its carcinogenic effects. Many industries do not always have the knowledge and desire that it takes to handle these hazardous substances.

International organizations, such as OECD, ILO and IPEC, have been striving for a safe working environment and for the elimination of child labour. It is due to them, among others, that many companies have chosen to take a social responsibility and to sign Codes of Conduct. These codes have had a huge penetrating power in the business world.

One of the most important conclusions in this essay is that the Convention on the Rights of the Child has an important part to play when it comes to children’s rights, but when it comes to child labour the most important thing is that the companies themselves realize that they have to work with this question. To run a successful business you have to have a wide, human perspective, since the reputation is so important. The Convention on the Rights of the Child should continue to be a general underframe and a goal for children’s rights. Other important conclusions in the essay are that a clear definition of the concept “child labour” in the Convention on the Rights of the Child is desirable and that Sweden should incorporate the convention as a symbolic demonstration. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kvernby, Karolina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Walking over children - what meaning should the Convention on the Rights of the Child have to children in the shoe industry?
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
barnarbete, Internationell rätt, familjerätt, Barnkonventionen, FN:s barnkonvention, skoindustri
language
Swedish
id
1759252
date added to LUP
2011-01-21 13:45:25
date last changed
2011-01-21 13:45:25
@misc{1759252,
  abstract     = {The essay investigates what meaning the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child should have to children in the shoe industry. To be able to answer this main issue the essay is divided into the following sub-categories:

-	How does the situation look like when it comes to child labour?
-	What is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
-	Who is responsible for the observance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?
-	How and where are shoes produced?
-	What routines do shoe companies have in order to find out how and by whom their articles have been produced? Rules verses reality. 

According to article 32 in the convention, children have the right to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health. This sounds very good, but the question is if the convention really fulfills its purpose. 

Defining child labour is not that easy. It has to be distinguished from “child work”, which is not harmful. At least 250 million children, from 5 to 14 years old, are involved in child labour. The problem is particularly large in Asia, where more than 153 million children are working. 

There is a clear connection between child labour and poverty. To change that downward spiral of poverty, which many countries are seized in, the primary thing to invest in is public education.

International conventions have an important part to play when dealing with the elimination of child labour. The Convention on the Rights of the Child could be summarized by the following sentence: Children should be respected. That means that administrative authorities should base their decisions on a child perspective, if a child is involved. 

The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is making sure that the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is made in the right way. The committee is also looking after the implementation of the two optional protocols, on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The committee can not receive complaints from individuals, but it makes sure that children can invoke their rights in court for example.

When it comes to child labour in the shoe industry, there is a big risk that children are harmed by different chemical substances. Chrome-6 is especially dangerous because of its carcinogenic effects. Many industries do not always have the knowledge and desire that it takes to handle these hazardous substances.  

International organizations, such as OECD, ILO and IPEC, have been striving for a safe working environment and for the elimination of child labour. It is due to them, among others, that many companies have chosen to take a social responsibility and to sign Codes of Conduct. These codes have had a huge penetrating power in the business world. 

One of the most important conclusions in this essay is that the Convention on the Rights of the Child has an important part to play when it comes to children’s rights, but when it comes to child labour the most important thing is that the companies themselves realize that they have to work with this question. To run a successful business you have to have a wide, human perspective, since the reputation is so important. The Convention on the Rights of the Child should continue to be a general underframe and a goal for children’s rights. Other important conclusions in the essay are that a clear definition of the concept “child labour” in the Convention on the Rights of the Child is desirable and that Sweden should incorporate the convention as a symbolic demonstration.},
  author       = {Kvernby, Karolina},
  keyword      = {barnarbete,Internationell rätt,familjerätt,Barnkonventionen,FN:s barnkonvention,skoindustri},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Att sko sig på barns bekostnad - vilken betydelse bör Barnkonventionen ha för barn i skoindustrin?},
  year         = {2011},
}