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Restriktioner vid häktning ur ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv

Wittbom, Hedda LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I Sverige kan den som blir häktad på grund av misstanke för brott bli ålagd restriktioner enligt 24 kap. 5a § RB, om åklagaren finner att det föreligger risk att den misstänkte kommer att försvåra utredningen genom att undandra bevisning, det vill säga om en kollusionsfara finns. Häktningsrestriktioner innebär att den häktade blir förbjuden att vistas tillsammans med andra intagna, mottaga besök, prata i telefon eller kommunicera genom brev, läsa tidningar, se på TV eller lyssna på radio etcetera.

Enligt lagstiftning och förarbeten ska restriktioner endast användas i exceptionella situationer, då restriktioner är en åtgärd som kan vara väldigt ingripande i den häktades integritet och frihet och få allvarliga följder för den häktade.... (More)
I Sverige kan den som blir häktad på grund av misstanke för brott bli ålagd restriktioner enligt 24 kap. 5a § RB, om åklagaren finner att det föreligger risk att den misstänkte kommer att försvåra utredningen genom att undandra bevisning, det vill säga om en kollusionsfara finns. Häktningsrestriktioner innebär att den häktade blir förbjuden att vistas tillsammans med andra intagna, mottaga besök, prata i telefon eller kommunicera genom brev, läsa tidningar, se på TV eller lyssna på radio etcetera.

Enligt lagstiftning och förarbeten ska restriktioner endast användas i exceptionella situationer, då restriktioner är en åtgärd som kan vara väldigt ingripande i den häktades integritet och frihet och få allvarliga följder för den häktade. Häktade som är ålagda restriktioner blir socialt isolerade från sin omvärld, och det är just denna isolering som kan vara psykiskt men även fysiskt skadligt. Men, restriktioner används idag ofta av svenska åklagare, och de flesta som häktas på grund av kollusionsfara åläggs restriktioner.

Det frekventa användandet av restriktioner har därför kommit att hamna i blickfånget för Europeiska rådets kommitté för förhindrande av tortyr. Tortyrkommittén, vars uppgift det är att övervaka att EU:s medlemsstater följer den Europeiska konventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna, har kritiserat Sverige och menat att restriktionerna kan utgöra omänsklig och förnedrande behandling, vilket står i strid mot Europakonventionen för mänskliga rättigheter.

Artikel 3 i Europakonventionen för mänskliga rättigheter förbjuder tortyr och omänsklig eller förnedrande behandling eller bestraffning inom EU. Denna artikel kan aktualiseras när användningen av häktningsrestriktioner går för långt eller varar för länge. Tortyrkommittén har genom uttalanden arbetat fram riktlinjer för när häktningsrestriktioner är accepterade enligt EU-rätten. Av uttalandena framgår att för att restriktioner ska vara berättigade måste isoleringen (ingripandet i den enskilde personens frihet) stå i proportion till de krav de krav som brottsutredningen ställer. Detta betyder vidare att isolering endast ska användas i exceptionella situationer, och kortare perioder. Samtliga restriktioner måste godkännas av domstol, och beslutet om restriktioner och skälen för dessa ska regelbundet omprövas av rätten. Om dessa krav inte uppfylls finns det risk att landet gör sig skyldig till brott mot Europakonventionen, och utsatta häktade kan rikta klagomål mot staten till Europadomstolen för de mänskliga rättigheterna.

För Sveriges del har Tortyrkommittén aldrig ansett att användningen av restriktioner har uppnått nivån omänsklig och förnedrande behandling, men det ligger idag i Sveriges intresse att utveckla lagstiftningen så att den överensstämmer med Tortyrkommitténs rekommendationer och därmed i förlängningen, EU-rätten, som en del av de internationell åtaganden som följer av att vara medlem i EU. (Less)
Abstract
A person being arrested in Sweden on the suspicion of a crime may be subjected to restrictions according to chapter 24 § 5a RB while incarcerated, if the prosecutor finds there is a risk that the suspect will interfere with the investigation. The detainee being placed under restrictions during detention, may be forbidden to meet other detainees, receive visits from friends and family, receive phone calls or communicate by letter, read newspapers, watch television or listen to radio etcetera.

According to Swedish legislation and preliminary work, restrictions during detention is only allowed in exceptional situations, as restrictions is a measure that is a serious intervention in the detainees integrity and liberty, from which the... (More)
A person being arrested in Sweden on the suspicion of a crime may be subjected to restrictions according to chapter 24 § 5a RB while incarcerated, if the prosecutor finds there is a risk that the suspect will interfere with the investigation. The detainee being placed under restrictions during detention, may be forbidden to meet other detainees, receive visits from friends and family, receive phone calls or communicate by letter, read newspapers, watch television or listen to radio etcetera.

According to Swedish legislation and preliminary work, restrictions during detention is only allowed in exceptional situations, as restrictions is a measure that is a serious intervention in the detainees integrity and liberty, from which the detainee may suffer serious consequences. Detainees who are subject to restrictions become socially isolated, and this isolation can be psychologically and even physically harmful. However, still, Swedish prosecutors frequently use restrictions, and most prisoner, who are detained due to suppression of evidence is imposed restrictions.

This frequent use of restrictions has therefore become an issue of interest for the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Torture Committee, whose task is to ensure that EU Member States follow the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, has on several occasions criticized Sweden and claims that restrictions can constitute inhuman and degrading treatment, which is prohibited by the European Convention on Human Rights.

Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment within the EU. This article may be applied in cases when the use of restrictions during detention go too far and for too long of a period. The Torture Committee has worked out guidelines for when the restrictions during the detention are accepted under EU law and states that for restrictions to be justified, the isolation (the intervention of the detainees liberty) must be proportionate to the demands of the requirements of the investigation. This means that isolation should be used only in exceptional situations, for a short period, all restrictions must be approved by a court. Furthermore the decision on the restrictions and the reasons for restrictions are to be regularly reviewed by the court. If these demands are not met, there is a risk that the state will be found guilty of breach of the European Convention, and vulnerable detainees suffering from such restrictions may based thereon pursue a complaint against the state to the European Court of Human Rights.

As for the use of restrictions in Sweden, the Torture Committee has never concluded that the use of restrictions has reached the level of inhuman or degrading treatment, but it is in Sweden's interest to develop legislation conform to the Torture Committee's recommendations and thus by extension, European law, as a part of the international commitments conferred by membership in the EU. (Less)
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author
Wittbom, Hedda LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Restrictions during detention from a European perspective
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, EU-rätt, Folkrätt, Häktningsrestriktioner
language
Swedish
id
1762519
date added to LUP
2011-01-14 11:17:09
date last changed
2011-01-14 11:17:09
@misc{1762519,
  abstract     = {A person being arrested in Sweden on the suspicion of a crime may be subjected to restrictions according to chapter 24 § 5a RB while incarcerated, if the prosecutor finds there is a risk that the suspect will interfere with the investigation. The detainee being placed under restrictions during detention, may be forbidden to meet other detainees, receive visits from friends and family, receive phone calls or communicate by letter, read newspapers, watch television or listen to radio etcetera.

According to Swedish legislation and preliminary work, restrictions during detention is only allowed in exceptional situations, as restrictions is a measure that is a serious intervention in the detainees integrity and liberty, from which the detainee may suffer serious consequences. Detainees who are subject to restrictions become socially isolated, and this isolation can be psychologically and even physically harmful. However, still, Swedish prosecutors frequently use restrictions, and most prisoner, who are detained due to suppression of evidence is imposed restrictions.

This frequent use of restrictions has therefore become an issue of interest for the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Torture Committee, whose task is to ensure that EU Member States follow the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, has on several occasions criticized Sweden and claims that restrictions can constitute inhuman and degrading treatment, which is prohibited by the European Convention on Human Rights.

Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment within the EU. This article may be applied in cases when the use of restrictions during detention go too far and for too long of a period. The Torture Committee has worked out guidelines for when the restrictions during the detention are accepted under EU law and states that for restrictions to be justified, the isolation (the intervention of the detainees liberty) must be proportionate to the demands of the requirements of the investigation. This means that isolation should be used only in exceptional situations, for a short period, all restrictions must be approved by a court. Furthermore the decision on the restrictions and the reasons for restrictions are to be regularly reviewed by the court. If these demands are not met, there is a risk that the state will be found guilty of breach of the European Convention, and vulnerable detainees suffering from such restrictions may based thereon pursue a complaint against the state to the European Court of Human Rights.

As for the use of restrictions in Sweden, the Torture Committee has never concluded that the use of restrictions has reached the level of inhuman or degrading treatment, but it is in Sweden's interest to develop legislation conform to the Torture Committee's recommendations and thus by extension, European law, as a part of the international commitments conferred by membership in the EU.},
  author       = {Wittbom, Hedda},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,EU-rätt,Folkrätt,Häktningsrestriktioner},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Restriktioner vid häktning ur ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv},
  year         = {2011},
}