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Inomobligatoriskt skadestånd för ren förmögenhetsskada - med särskild inriktning på avtal om handelsagentur

Strömberg, Louise LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract
If one of the parties to a contract does not fulfill his contractual promise, or has given information to the other party that he will not perform as mentioned in the contract, he is said to breach the contract. With that a breach of contract is a legal cause of action in which a contract is not honored by one of the parties.
Most of the time ones breach of contract leads to an economic loss for the other party. Economic loss refers to a financial loss rather than a physical injury to the person or destruction of property. An economic loss is ether a consequential economic loss, arising from physical damage or injury, or a pure economic loss arising from other circumstances. The purpose of this essay is mainly to investigate when a party... (More)
If one of the parties to a contract does not fulfill his contractual promise, or has given information to the other party that he will not perform as mentioned in the contract, he is said to breach the contract. With that a breach of contract is a legal cause of action in which a contract is not honored by one of the parties.
Most of the time ones breach of contract leads to an economic loss for the other party. Economic loss refers to a financial loss rather than a physical injury to the person or destruction of property. An economic loss is ether a consequential economic loss, arising from physical damage or injury, or a pure economic loss arising from other circumstances. The purpose of this essay is mainly to investigate when a party can be compensated for the pure economic loss. According to the Swedish Tort Liability Act, pure economic loss arising in a non-contractual relation shall be compensated only if the loss is caused through a commission of a crime. That is not the case in a contractual relation. The party to a contract who causes the other party a pure economic loss has a responsibility to compensate the loss, as long as the rest of the conditions are met. Liability for a pure economic loss is restricted under some circumstances. First of all we need causation between the injuring action and the loss that has risen. In most cases this criterion is not a problem, because it is the contract itself that obligates the parties to each other. Secondly, we need the causation to be adequate.
In an Agency Agreement lots of different kind of breaches of contract can arise. Breaches of contract committed by the principal is for example that he, contrary to the commercial agents exclusive right, by it self take action in the area or assigns someone else to do it. Breaches of contract committed by the commercial agent is for example that he doesn’t sell as much as it is stipulated in the contract or terminate the contract without any right doing so.

According to the legislation surrounding the commercial agent and its principal, the party that breaches the contract is required to compensate the other party for its pure economical loss if he has been negligent or has intend to hurt the other party. There is a presumption that the party did breach the contract because of negligence or that he intended to do so.

The fact that one party knows that the other party has a legal liability to compensate for a pure economic loss, makes the parties feel much safer to enter a contract and make a contractual commitment. This leads to that more voluntary transactions take place which has a so called quasi interest. The more voluntary transaction – the greater quasi interest. That there is a quasi interest means that the prosperity in the society has increased. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
När man i juridisk doktrin talar om inomobligatoriskt skadeståndsansvar åsyftas det skadeståndsansvar som drabbar part i ett avtalsförhållande. Den uppkomna skadan i dessa situationer är oftast ren förmögenhetsskada med vad menas sådan ekonomisk skada som uppkommit utan samband med person- eller sakskada. Huvudregeln i svensk skadeståndsrätt är att ren förmögenhetsskada leder till skadestånd endast när brott begåtts. I den inomobligatoriska skadeståndsrätten ersätts den rena förmögenhetsskadan däremot helt oberoende av om den har vållats genom ett brottsligt förfarande. Den avtalspart som åsamkar sin motpart skada förväntas svara för sina handlingar så länge ansvarsförutsättningarna i övrigt är uppfyllda.

Till ansvarsförutsättningarna i... (More)
När man i juridisk doktrin talar om inomobligatoriskt skadeståndsansvar åsyftas det skadeståndsansvar som drabbar part i ett avtalsförhållande. Den uppkomna skadan i dessa situationer är oftast ren förmögenhetsskada med vad menas sådan ekonomisk skada som uppkommit utan samband med person- eller sakskada. Huvudregeln i svensk skadeståndsrätt är att ren förmögenhetsskada leder till skadestånd endast när brott begåtts. I den inomobligatoriska skadeståndsrätten ersätts den rena förmögenhetsskadan däremot helt oberoende av om den har vållats genom ett brottsligt förfarande. Den avtalspart som åsamkar sin motpart skada förväntas svara för sina handlingar så länge ansvarsförutsättningarna i övrigt är uppfyllda.

Till ansvarsförutsättningarna i övrigt räknas först och främst kausalitet, med andra ord ett orsakssamband mellan skadelidande handling och den skada som uppstått. I avtalsförhållanden föreligger i de flesta fall kauslitet mellan handling och skada i och med att avtalet i sig förpliktigar parterna i förhållande till varandra. Utöver kausalitet krävs det för att skadestånd skall utgå att det föreligger adekvans mellan handling och skada, med andra ord att sambandet mellan avtalsbrott och skada har att vara tillräckligt nära. Slutligen så omfattar skadeståndsskyldigheten inte skador som ligger utanför det så kallade skyddsintresset som kännetecknar de aktuella skade-ståndsreglerna.

Vid agenturavtal kan en mängd olika typer av avtalsbrott aktualiseras. Exempel på avtalsbrott begångna av huvudmannen är att han i strid med handelsagentens ensamrätt själv vidtar åtgärder alternativt ger i uppdrag åt annan att göra det eller att han säger upp avtalet utan grund. Exempel på avtalsbrott begångna av handelsagenten är istället att denna inte säljer så stora kvantiteter som han åtagit sig att göra, svärtar ner huvudmannens varumärke i strid med avtalet eller säger upp avtalet utan grund. Enligt den rättsliga reglering som omsluter handelsagenten och dennes huvudman så är den kontraktsbrytande parten skadeståndsskyldig om han har varit försumlig eller haft uppsåt att skada medkontrahenten. Vad vi således har att göra med är ett presumtionsansvar där den kontraktsbrytande parten presumeras ha varit försumlig.

Att en avtalspart vet med sig att motparten, vid ett eventuellt avtalsbrott, har att ersätta den förfördelade avtalsparten så att denna sätts i samma situation som om avtalet fullföljs, ökar tryggheten att ingå avtal. Detta medför i förlängningen att fler frivilliga transaktioner äger rum än annars vore fallet. Varje frivillig transaktion leder till en så kallad kvasiränta, desto fler frivilliga transaktioner - desto större kvasiränta. Att det har uppstått en kvasiränta betyder att det i samhället har skett en välståndsökning. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Strömberg, Louise LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förmögenhetsrätt
language
Swedish
id
1769143
date added to LUP
2011-01-26 10:33:34
date last changed
2011-01-26 10:33:34
@misc{1769143,
  abstract     = {If one of the parties to a contract does not fulfill his contractual promise, or has given information to the other party that he will not perform as mentioned in the contract, he is said to breach the contract. With that a breach of contract is a legal cause of action in which a contract is not honored by one of the parties. 
Most of the time ones breach of contract leads to an economic loss for the other party. Economic loss refers to a financial loss rather than a physical injury to the person or destruction of property. An economic loss is ether a consequential economic loss, arising from physical damage or injury, or a pure economic loss arising from other circumstances. The purpose of this essay is mainly to investigate when a party can be compensated for the pure economic loss. According to the Swedish Tort Liability Act, pure economic loss arising in a non-contractual relation shall be compensated only if the loss is caused through a commission of a crime. That is not the case in a contractual relation. The party to a contract who causes the other party a pure economic loss has a responsibility to compensate the loss, as long as the rest of the conditions are met. Liability for a pure economic loss is restricted under some circumstances. First of all we need causation between the injuring action and the loss that has risen. In most cases this criterion is not a problem, because it is the contract itself that obligates the parties to each other. Secondly, we need the causation to be adequate.
In an Agency Agreement lots of different kind of breaches of contract can arise. Breaches of contract committed by the principal is for example that he, contrary to the commercial agents exclusive right, by it self take action in the area or assigns someone else to do it. Breaches of contract committed by the commercial agent is for example that he doesn’t sell as much as it is stipulated in the contract or terminate the contract without any right doing so.

According to the legislation surrounding the commercial agent and its principal, the party that breaches the contract is required to compensate the other party for its pure economical loss if he has been negligent or has intend to hurt the other party. There is a presumption that the party did breach the contract because of negligence or that he intended to do so.
	
The fact that one party knows that the other party has a legal liability to compensate for a pure economic loss, makes the parties feel much safer to enter a contract and make a contractual commitment. This leads to that more voluntary transactions take place which has a so called quasi interest. The more voluntary transaction – the greater quasi interest. That there is a quasi interest means that the prosperity in the society has increased.},
  author       = {Strömberg, Louise},
  keyword      = {Förmögenhetsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Inomobligatoriskt skadestånd för ren förmögenhetsskada - med särskild inriktning på avtal om handelsagentur},
  year         = {2011},
}