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Planläggning enligt PBL som miljörättsligt instrument

Lundblad, Alexander LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Vid fysisk planering genom upprättande och antagande av planer analyseras hur mark- och vattenområden ska användas i framtiden. Detaljnivå och rättslig status varierar mellan plantyperna, några är rättsligt bindande medan andra är vägledande. I Sverige är makten över markanvändningsplaneringen decentraliserad, kommunerna har huvudansvaret för planeringen. Genom länsstyrelsen bevakas statens intressen bland annat genom kunskapsförsörjning, granskning och ingripande vid felaktig rättstillämpning. Det har skett åtskilliga lagändringar inom PBL och det är uppenbart att den växande medvetenheten kring miljöproblem och intresset för miljöfrågor fått genomslag i lagstiftningen. Men även efter ikraftträdandet av nya PBL under 2011 kommer... (More)
Vid fysisk planering genom upprättande och antagande av planer analyseras hur mark- och vattenområden ska användas i framtiden. Detaljnivå och rättslig status varierar mellan plantyperna, några är rättsligt bindande medan andra är vägledande. I Sverige är makten över markanvändningsplaneringen decentraliserad, kommunerna har huvudansvaret för planeringen. Genom länsstyrelsen bevakas statens intressen bland annat genom kunskapsförsörjning, granskning och ingripande vid felaktig rättstillämpning. Det har skett åtskilliga lagändringar inom PBL och det är uppenbart att den växande medvetenheten kring miljöproblem och intresset för miljöfrågor fått genomslag i lagstiftningen. Men även efter ikraftträdandet av nya PBL under 2011 kommer utgångspunkten för lagen vara att möjliggöra förändrad markanvändning. Eftersom PBL och MB delvis har samma tillämpningsområde men olika utgångspunkter kan parallell prövning enligt de båda lagarna uppfattas som betungande samtidigt som omfattande samordning försvåras av lagarnas olika utgångspunkter. Enligt kritiker till gällande planlagstiftning har det inte visats att PBL och planeringskulturen är ändamålsenlig om målsättningen är hållbar utveckling och ett lämpligt alternativ till den exploateringsinriktade planlagstiftningen är adaptiv miljöplanering. Förespråkarna hävdar däremot att befintlig lagstiftning anpassats och klarar uppgiften att åstadkomma hållbar utveckling. För att kunna bedöma huruvida planinstrumentet fyller funktionen som miljörättsligt instrument behöver kravregler, hänsynsregler som styr intresseavvägningar, samt de formella delarna av planläggningsprocessen undersökas tillsammans. Planbeslut har en sammansatt karaktär av myndighetsutövning och politiskt ställningstagande, kommunen ges stort utrymme vid avvägningen mellan allmänna intressen och eftersom beslut som faller inom handlingsutrymmet utgör politiska ställningstaganden blir de inte föremål för rättslig överprövning. Kommunens handlingsutrymme begränsas dock genom hushållningsbestämmelserna och miljökvalitetsnormer som genomförs vid planläggning. Beslutsunderlaget och planläggningsprocessen fyller en viktig funktion genom bland annat bestämmelserna om miljökonsekvensbeskrivning, medborgardeltagande, dialog med länsstyrelsen osv. Även om lagstiftningen skapar förutsättningar för att beslutsunderlaget ska kunna bidra till en ur miljösynpunkt lämplig intresseavvägning förekommer ofta brister i tillämpningen. Bristande kvalitet på beslutsunderlaget brukar kunna förklaras med att de formella kraven för planläggningsprocessen är betungande och svårtolkade. Trots att miljöaspekter framhävs genom beslutsunderlaget och därmed ska beaktas vid avvägningen behöver de inte ges ytterligare inflytande. Eftersom intresseavvägningar sker förhållandevis fritt, med undantag för endast ett fåtal tydliga kravregler, riskerar miljöintresset att åsidosättas till förmån för ekonomiska intressen. Sammantaget förefaller miljöintresset till stor del vara beroende av rättstillämpningen i det enskilda ärendet och kommunens ambitionsnivå. (Less)
Abstract
Physical planning by establishing and adopting plans enables analysis of future land and water use. The level of detail and legal status varies between the different types of plans; some are legally binding while others are guiding and non-binding. Land use planning in Sweden is decentralized and municipalities carry the main responsibility for planning. Matters of national interest are watched over by the county administrative board through knowledge support, consultation and intervening in cases of wrongful application of law. The Planning and Building Act have been reviewed several times and it is obvious that increasing awareness of environmental issues and the general environmental interest have affected the legislation. The main... (More)
Physical planning by establishing and adopting plans enables analysis of future land and water use. The level of detail and legal status varies between the different types of plans; some are legally binding while others are guiding and non-binding. Land use planning in Sweden is decentralized and municipalities carry the main responsibility for planning. Matters of national interest are watched over by the county administrative board through knowledge support, consultation and intervening in cases of wrongful application of law. The Planning and Building Act have been reviewed several times and it is obvious that increasing awareness of environmental issues and the general environmental interest have affected the legislation. The main purpose of the new Planning and Building Act which comes into force during 2011 will still be to enable development. The area of application for the Planning and Building Act is to a certain extent shared with the Environmental Code which is based on different underlying purposes. Overlapping application which may be considered inconvenient does occur and further synchronization is complicated. According to those who criticize the current legislation and the associated ‘development-culture’ has it not been shown that necessary adjustments to sustainable development have been made, adaptive environmental planning is a suitable alternative to the current legislation. Those who support the current planning system consider the legislation to have been adjusted so that it is able to ensure sustainable development. To be able to determine whether land use planning as a legal instrument also fulfills a purpose from an environmental perspective regulations, rules of consideration and formal rules on the planning process must be examined together. Plan decisions are composed of both exercise of public authority and political considerations. The municipality disposes over a wide space for consideration regarding common interests and as long as the decision falls within the acting space and constitute a political standpoint it cannot be appealed and legally retried. The municipality’s acting space is however limited by national provisions regarding the management of land and water areas and environmental quality standards. The planning process itself is of great importance and involves consultation with the county administrative board, environmental impact assessment, citizen participation etc. The legislation enacts conditions for the planning process which results in the basis for decisions; decision basis of low quality can sometimes be explained by the complicated planning process and formal requirements which are hard to interpret. Although environmental aspects are highlighted in the decision basis and shall be considered in the weighting of interests further influences are not guaranteed. Environmental interests risk being overridden by the interest of economic growth because of the weighing of common interests which is loosely regulated with only a few exceptions. Environmental interests do altogether appear to be dependent on application of the law in the particular case and the municipality’s level of ambition. (Less)
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author
Lundblad, Alexander LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Land use planning according to the Swedish Planning and Building Act as an instrument in environmental law
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Miljörätt, Förvaltningsrätt
language
Swedish
id
1774301
date added to LUP
2011-02-01 14:16:40
date last changed
2011-02-01 14:16:40
@misc{1774301,
  abstract     = {Physical planning by establishing and adopting plans enables analysis of future land and water use. The level of detail and legal status varies between the different types of plans; some are legally binding while others are guiding and non-binding. Land use planning in Sweden is decentralized and municipalities carry the main responsibility for planning. Matters of national interest are watched over by the county administrative board through knowledge support, consultation and intervening in cases of wrongful application of law. The Planning and Building Act have been reviewed several times and it is obvious that increasing awareness of environmental issues and the general environmental interest have affected the legislation. The main purpose of the new Planning and Building Act which comes into force during 2011 will still be to enable development. The area of application for the Planning and Building Act is to a certain extent shared with the Environmental Code which is based on different underlying purposes. Overlapping application which may be considered inconvenient does occur and further synchronization is complicated. According to those who criticize the current legislation and the associated ‘development-culture’ has it not been shown that necessary adjustments to sustainable development have been made, adaptive environmental planning is a suitable alternative to the current legislation. Those who support the current planning system consider the legislation to have been adjusted so that it is able to ensure sustainable development. To be able to determine whether land use planning as a legal instrument also fulfills a purpose from an environmental perspective regulations, rules of consideration and formal rules on the planning process must be examined together. Plan decisions are composed of both exercise of public authority and political considerations. The municipality disposes over a wide space for consideration regarding common interests and as long as the decision falls within the acting space and constitute a political standpoint it cannot be appealed and legally retried. The municipality’s acting space is however limited by national provisions regarding the management of land and water areas and environmental quality standards. The planning process itself is of great importance and involves consultation with the county administrative board, environmental impact assessment, citizen participation etc. The legislation enacts conditions for the planning process which results in the basis for decisions; decision basis of low quality can sometimes be explained by the complicated planning process and formal requirements which are hard to interpret. Although environmental aspects are highlighted in the decision basis and shall be considered in the weighting of interests further influences are not guaranteed. Environmental interests risk being overridden by the interest of economic growth because of the weighing of common interests which is loosely regulated with only a few exceptions. Environmental interests do altogether appear to be dependent on application of the law in the particular case and the municipality’s level of ambition.},
  author       = {Lundblad, Alexander},
  keyword      = {Miljörätt,Förvaltningsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Planläggning enligt PBL som miljörättsligt instrument},
  year         = {2011},
}