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The Draft Common Frame of Reference - något för en svensk jurist att lägga på minnet

Nelson, Lovisa LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Europeiska unionens (EU) huvudmålsättning är att fri rörlighet av varor, personer, tjänster och kapital ska råda inom unionen. Rättsenigheten inom EU har dock brister och det har observerats att det för en väl fungerande inre marknad hade varit behjälpligt med harmonisering av medlemsstaternas civillagstiftning. För detta ändamål har Europeiska kommissionen initierat utformningen av en gemensam referensram, Common Frame of Reference (CFR), för att utveckla gemensamma principer för och förbättra kvaliteten på den europeiska avtalsrätten. Målet med referensramen är att få till stånd ett regelverk för europeisk avtalsrätt.

Europeiska kommissionens arbete med en gemensam referensram gick ihop med ”Study Group on a European Civil Code” och... (More)
Europeiska unionens (EU) huvudmålsättning är att fri rörlighet av varor, personer, tjänster och kapital ska råda inom unionen. Rättsenigheten inom EU har dock brister och det har observerats att det för en väl fungerande inre marknad hade varit behjälpligt med harmonisering av medlemsstaternas civillagstiftning. För detta ändamål har Europeiska kommissionen initierat utformningen av en gemensam referensram, Common Frame of Reference (CFR), för att utveckla gemensamma principer för och förbättra kvaliteten på den europeiska avtalsrätten. Målet med referensramen är att få till stånd ett regelverk för europeisk avtalsrätt.

Europeiska kommissionens arbete med en gemensam referensram gick ihop med ”Study Group on a European Civil Code” och ”Research Group on Existing EC Private Law” och deras försök att göra ett underlag för en gemensam europeisk civilrättskodifikation. I september år 2009 publicerade grupperna Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), som är ett utkast till en gemensam referensram. DCFR innehåller principer, definitioner och modellregler för avtalsrätt, köp och andra särskilda kontraktstyper, utomobligatoriska förhållanden samt sakrätt. I dagsläget är frågan hur mycket av DCFR som kommer att ligga till grund för CFR.

DCFR har fått utstå omfattande kritik för att vara för abstrakt utformad. För att referensramen ska kunna anpassas till omständigheterna i ett visst fall verkar detta dock ha varit skaparnas ambition. Kritiker menar att domstolarna får betydande tolkningsmöjligheter och därmed för mycket makt. Det finns även en risk att DCFR inte leder till harmonisering då abstrakta regler försvårar konform tolkning i medlemsländernas olika rättstraditioner. DCFR kritiseras även för att områden utanför avtalsrätten reglerats, trots att det är avtalsrätten som kommissionen vill harmonisera och den europeiska uppfattningen är klarare på avtalsrättens område då detta rättsområde genomgått omfattande gemenskapsrättsforskning.

I dagsläget granskar europeiska kommissionen DCFR för att identifiera vilka delar de vill använda i en gemensam referensram. I Sverige har utkastet redan fått särskild betydelse då DCFR:s regler använts i domskälen i NJA 2009 s. 672. Ledande svenska akademiker på området anser att Sverige nu fått en ny rättskälla att använda i de fall regler inte finns att tillgå i det svenska rättssystemet.

På gemenskapsnivå diskuteras just nu vilken form CFR ska ha. Mycket talar för att referensramen kommer att användas som ett icke-bindande hjälpmedel för EU:s lagstiftande organ på avtalsrättens område, vilket Sveriges Riksdag stödjer. Civilrättsliga områden utanför avtalsrätten verkar inte beröras i en framtida gemensam referensram. Då alla utom skaparna av DCFR verkar överens om att arbetet endast ska få betydelse på avtalsrättens område borde en svensk jurist endast använda verkets avtalsrättsliga regler. (Less)
Abstract
One of the main goals of the European Union (EU) is to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services and people. Divergences in national contract laws are seen as an impediment to this free movement. To overcome this hurdle scholars clearly suggest that the internal market would benefit if the EU had harmonized the private law. The European Commission (EC) has therefore initiated the creation of a Common Frame of Reference (CFR), a document which would set out common principles to improve the quality and coherence of the contract law of the Member States. The objective is to achieve a uniform European contract law.

The creation of a CFR joined the work of the Study Group on a European Civil Code and the Research Group on... (More)
One of the main goals of the European Union (EU) is to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services and people. Divergences in national contract laws are seen as an impediment to this free movement. To overcome this hurdle scholars clearly suggest that the internal market would benefit if the EU had harmonized the private law. The European Commission (EC) has therefore initiated the creation of a Common Frame of Reference (CFR), a document which would set out common principles to improve the quality and coherence of the contract law of the Member States. The objective is to achieve a uniform European contract law.

The creation of a CFR joined the work of the Study Group on a European Civil Code and the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law and their efforts to produce a common foundation for European private law. These groups published the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in September 2009. The DCFR is a draft of the CFR and consists of principles, definitions and model rules for contract law, non-contractual obligations and matters of moveable property law. The issue now is to what extent the DCFR may be used as a preparatory foundation for the final CFR.

The DCFR has been criticized for being too abstract. This seems to have been the drafting academics’ purpose however, aiming to ensure that the frame of reference can adapt to the circumstances. Nonetheless, critics hold that the DCFR gives the Courts extensive means to interpret the frame of reference, which redistributes too much power to the Courts. Abstract, flexible rules will make it hard to achieve a uniform interpretation throughout the Member States, which will obstruct harmonization. The DCFR is also criticized for containing other areas of private law other than contract law when the EC wanted to harmonize contract law, which has been subject to much more research within the EU.

The EC is now investigating the DCFR to identify which parts the CFR will use. The draft has already proven its importance in Sweden when the Supreme Court took it into account in NJA 2009 s. 672. Leading Swedish academics in the various private law fields argue that Sweden now has a new source of law to be used on issues that did not have any binding law on them previously.

The European Commission is investigating what the legal nature of the CFR should be. At the moment it seems like the CFR will become a non-binding “toolbox” for the EU legislatures to use when drafting new contract law rules. The Swedish Parliament supports this position. It does not seem likely that other private law areas will be included in the future CFR. It is therefore argued that a Swedish lawyer or judge should not use the DCFR outside the contract law field. (Less)
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author
Nelson, Lovisa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Draft Common Frame of Reference - something for a Swedish lawyer to keep in mind
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt Civilrätt EU-rätt Draft Common Frame of Reference DCFR
language
Swedish
id
1858644
date added to LUP
2011-04-01 13:37:22
date last changed
2011-04-01 13:37:22
@misc{1858644,
  abstract     = {One of the main goals of the European Union (EU) is to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services and people. Divergences in national contract laws are seen as an impediment to this free movement. To overcome this hurdle scholars clearly suggest that the internal market would benefit if the EU had harmonized the private law. The European Commission (EC) has therefore initiated the creation of a Common Frame of Reference (CFR), a document which would set out common principles to improve the quality and coherence of the contract law of the Member States. The objective is to achieve a uniform European contract law.
 
The creation of a CFR joined the work of the Study Group on a European Civil Code and the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law and their efforts to produce a common foundation for European private law. These groups published the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in September 2009. The DCFR is a draft of the CFR and consists of principles, definitions and model rules for contract law, non-contractual obligations and matters of moveable property law. The issue now is to what extent the DCFR may be used as a preparatory foundation for the final CFR.
 
The DCFR has been criticized for being too abstract. This seems to have been the drafting academics’ purpose however, aiming to ensure that the frame of reference can adapt to the circumstances. Nonetheless, critics hold that the DCFR gives the Courts extensive means to interpret the frame of reference, which redistributes too much power to the Courts. Abstract, flexible rules will make it hard to achieve a uniform interpretation throughout the Member States, which will obstruct harmonization. The DCFR is also criticized for containing other areas of private law other than contract law when the EC wanted to harmonize contract law, which has been subject to much more research within the EU. 
 
The EC is now investigating the DCFR to identify which parts the CFR will use. The draft has already proven its importance in Sweden when the Supreme Court took it into account in NJA 2009 s. 672. Leading Swedish academics in the various private law fields argue that Sweden now has a new source of law to be used on issues that did not have any binding law on them previously.
 
The European Commission is investigating what the legal nature of the CFR should be. At the moment it seems like the CFR will become a non-binding “toolbox” for the EU legislatures to use when drafting new contract law rules. The Swedish Parliament supports this position. It does not seem likely that other private law areas will be included in the future CFR. It is therefore argued that a Swedish lawyer or judge should not use the DCFR outside the contract law field.},
  author       = {Nelson, Lovisa},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt
Civilrätt
EU-rätt
Draft Common Frame of Reference
DCFR},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Draft Common Frame of Reference - något för en svensk jurist att lägga på minnet},
  year         = {2011},
}