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Bevisvärdering vid våldtäkt - med fördjupning på stödbevisning

Frid, Susanne LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Våldtäkt är ett ord som väcker många känslor och associationer hos människor i dagens samhälle. Alla har på något sätt kommit i kontakt med det, även om han eller hon inte själv varit drabbad eller känner någon som har. Med jämna mellanrum är våldtäkt och sexuella övergrepp i stort ett stort och hett ämne i media. Tyvärr speglar inte alltid deras bild av hur det ser ut, den som finns i verkligheten. Det är enkelt att tycka och tänka utan att egentligen vara insatt i vad det innebär, både att bli våldtagen eller att vara den som blir straffad för det.
För polisen och åklagaren under förundersökningen är det en svår uppgift att ställa rätt frågor och analysera huruvida anklagelserna stämmer eller räcker för att väcka åtal. När åtal väckts... (More)
Våldtäkt är ett ord som väcker många känslor och associationer hos människor i dagens samhälle. Alla har på något sätt kommit i kontakt med det, även om han eller hon inte själv varit drabbad eller känner någon som har. Med jämna mellanrum är våldtäkt och sexuella övergrepp i stort ett stort och hett ämne i media. Tyvärr speglar inte alltid deras bild av hur det ser ut, den som finns i verkligheten. Det är enkelt att tycka och tänka utan att egentligen vara insatt i vad det innebär, både att bli våldtagen eller att vara den som blir straffad för det.
För polisen och åklagaren under förundersökningen är det en svår uppgift att ställa rätt frågor och analysera huruvida anklagelserna stämmer eller räcker för att väcka åtal. När åtal väckts och det kommer till domstolen har de en lika svår och komplicerad uppgift där att ta hand om den information som kommer fram i form av utsagor, vittnesmål och förhoppningsvis övrig bevisning.
Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa hur bevisföringen och värderingen av våldtäktsbrottet ser ut, och lyfta fram dess svårigheter och problematik. Det har också varit att få fram vad själva brottsrubriceringen innebär och vad som krävs för att en handling skall kunna bedömas som våldtäkt. Syftet har vidare varit att titta närmare på vad stödbevisning är och vad det har för betydelse i processen. Om det används, varför det används och hur. I arbetet med detta har det framkommit frågeställningar som är: vad krävs för att en handling skall kunna rubriceras som våldtäkt? Hur ser bevisföringen och värderingen ut vid våldtäktsbrott? Vad är stödbevisning och vad har det för betydelse i svensk rätt och domstol?
Gällande rätt avseende våldtäkt är baserad på en lagstiftning som tillkom år 2005 efter en omfattande reform med en del stora förändringar. Inför den nya lagstiftningen gjordes en utredning, som följdes av en proposition som ersatte sexuellt umgänge med sexuell handling och där det skulle vara tillräckligt att gärningsmannen framtvingat den sexuella handlingen genom misshandel eller annars med våld eller hot om brottslig gärning. Våldtäktsbegreppet skulle även ändras till att omfatta hjälplöst tillstånd.
Principen om fri bevisprövning är det förfarande i den allmänna domstolen som rättegången skall vara uppbyggt från. Regeln om fri bevisprövning innefattar även principerna om fri bevisföring och fri bevisvärdering. I en rättegång finns det ett bevistema med huvudbevis och motbevis, och det är åklagaren som har den fulla bevisbördan. Det finns inga beviskrav i RB men HD har i praxis fastslagit att det skall vara ställt utom rimligt tvivel att den åtalade är skyldig till de gärningar han står åtalad för.
Vid bevisvärdering görs en bedömning av sambandet mellan ett påstående om ett mänskligt handlande eller beteende i det förflutna och de bevis som finns av denna händelse. Syftet med denna process är att söka sluta sig att denna påstådda händelse också utspelat sig i verkligheten. Vid bevisvärderingen finns det olika metoder att använda sig av. Jag har valt att ta upp temametoden, värdemetoden och metoden om alternativa hypoteser.
Bevisläget i sexualbrottsmål är speciellt svårt och kravet på tillräckliga bevis får enligt praxis inte efterges. Åklagarens utrednings- och bevisbörda får inte heller försvagas i dessa fall. Dennes uppgift blir att bevisa den brottsliga gärningen vars form uttrycks i lagstiftning, praxis och förarbeten.
Vid bestämmandet av brottsrubriceringen är det inte kvinnans beteende före övergreppet eller parternas tidigare relation som skall stå i fokus eller få någon betydelse. Den straffrättsliga bedömningen skall grundas i huruvida offret med våld eller hot om våld utsatts för ett sexuellt övergrepp. I centrum för den rättsliga bedömningen skall gärningsmannens handling och vad som föranlett honom att utföra den stå.
Det finns olika typer av bevis i brottmål där DNA är ett av dem. Värderingen av den tilltalades och målsägandens utsagor är ofta det centrala i våldtäktsrättegångar, då det vanligtvis saknas vittnesmål eller andra bevis. Hur målsägandens utsaga skall värderas och tolkas finns omskrivet och fastslagit i ett antal praxis från HD. Torkel Gregow, tidigare justitieråd och medlem av HD, har i en omtalad och erkänd artikel satt upp vad han kallar trovärdighetskriterium just vad gäller målsägandens utsaga.
Trots att det sällan finns teknisk eller medicinsk bevisning vid sexualbrottsmål, är det ovanligt med renodlade utsagemål, mål som enbart baseras på målsägandeutsaga samt den tilltalades uppgifter. Stöd till de hördas versioner tillkommer oftast angående själva händelseförloppet genom att t ex anhöriga kan vittna om blåmärken på målsäganden samt om dennes hälsotillstånd vid olika tidpunkter. Det kan även vara vittnesmål angående den tilltalades alkoholkonsumtion och hur han/hon agerar i samband med det, eller andra uppgifter som kan vara av betydelse för målet och bevisningen. Det är denna typ av vittnesmål som kallas stödbevisning, och det är denna typ av bevisning som jag valt att studera närmare. Det finns i svensk rätt inget formellt krav på stödbevisning men den fyller oftast en funktion som stöd vid bedömningen av en utsagas bevisvärde. Däremot måste stödbevisningen vara förenlig med målsägandens utsaga för att räcka som full bevisning. HD har i NJA 1991 s. 83 och NJA 2005 s. 712 fastslagit vikten av stödbevisning i fall som saknar övrig bevisning, där våldtäktsåtalet ogillades i det senare med hänvisning till bristen på stödbevisning, och där åtalet bifölls i den första på grund av förekomsten som styrkte målsägandens utsaga. Efter dessa två domar har det efterlysts fler HD-prejudikat på området och dessa har nu kommit i form av NJA 2009 s. 447 I och II där de åtalade frikändes med hänvisning just till avsaknaden av tillräcklig stödbevisning. Åsikterna i doktrin efter den nu aktuella domen har varit att det inte är något nytt principiellt uttalande från HD som kommit i och med denna dom utan det är samma vägledning som de tidigare framfört.
Efter att ha studerat stödbevisningens vara eller icke vara, och vilken betydelse den har för svensk rätt efter HD:s uttalande ville jag se hur domstolarna tolkar och anpassar sig efter praxis. Jag valde att studera och analysera åtta domar från HovR över Skåne och Blekinge från 2010 för att se om och i så fall hur de tolkar och använder sig av stödbevisning vid bevisvärderingen.
Jag kom fram till att det i samtliga fall tas upp att det fanns vittnesmål till stöd för målsägandens berättelse men det är endast i fall nummer 2 som ordet stödbevisning skrivs ut. I de andra fallen kallas det stöd, men man kan med deras resonemang förstå att det är stödbevisning de pratar om och är ute efter. Ingen av fallen tar upp vikten eller användandet av stödbevisning som NJA 1991 s. 83, NJA 2005 s. 712 och NJA 2009 s. 447 I och II gör. Däremot tyckte jag mig se att de i varje enskilt fall tar upp egenskaper hos målsägandens berättelse som sedan ligger till grund för bedömningen, där ord som sammanhängande, detaljrik, övertygande, tillförlitliga, trovärdiga osv används vid bedömningen. Det tas även i flertalet av fallen upp att rätten inte funnit någon anledning till varför målsäganden skulle beljuga den tilltalade. (Less)
Abstract
Rape is a word that arouses many feelings and associations of people in today's society. All have somehow come into contact with it, even if he or she has not personally been affected or knows someone who has. Periodically, the rape and sexual abuse in general is a great and hot topic in the media. I do not always reflect their view of how it looks in the real world. It's easy to think and believe without really being familiar with what it mean, both to be raped or be the one who gets punished for it.
For the police and prosecutor during the preliminary investigation, it is a difficult task to ask the right questions and analyze whether the allegations true or sufficient to bring charges. When the prosecution and it appears to the court,... (More)
Rape is a word that arouses many feelings and associations of people in today's society. All have somehow come into contact with it, even if he or she has not personally been affected or knows someone who has. Periodically, the rape and sexual abuse in general is a great and hot topic in the media. I do not always reflect their view of how it looks in the real world. It's easy to think and believe without really being familiar with what it mean, both to be raped or be the one who gets punished for it.
For the police and prosecutor during the preliminary investigation, it is a difficult task to ask the right questions and analyze whether the allegations true or sufficient to bring charges. When the prosecution and it appears to the court, they have an equally difficult and complex task in which to take care of the details that emerge in the form of testimony, depositions, and hopefully the other evidence.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the demonstration and evaluation of the rape offense looks like, and highlight the difficulties and problems. It has also been to produce what the criminal description means and what it takes to produce a document shall be deemed to be rape. The aim has also been looking closely at what supporting evidence is and what the significance is in the process. If used, why it is used and how. The work on this has revealed issues that are: what is required for an act to be classified as rape? What is the assessment and submission of the evidence at the rape crime? What is supporting evidence and what is the significance of the Swedish law and the courts?
Existing law relating to rape is based on a law that was introduced in 2005 after a major reform with some major changes. Before the new legislation has made a study, which was followed by a bill which replaced sexual intercourse with sexual conduct and which would be sufficient that the perpetrator forced the sexual act by assault or otherwise, with violence or the threat of a criminal offense. Rape concept would also be amended to include a helpless condition.
The principle of free assessment of evidence is the procedure of the General Court that the trial must be designed from. The principle of free assessment of evidence also includes the principles of unfettered and free evaluation of evidence. In one trial, there is a proof of the main theme of proof and disproof, and the prosecution has the full burden of proof. There is no proof in RB but the Supreme Court has in practice found it to be no reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty of the offenses he is prosecuted for.
In the evaluation of evidence, an assessment of the relationship between an allegation of a human action or behavior in the past is done together with the evidence of this event. The purpose of this process is to seek conclude that this alleged incident also played out in reality. In evaluating the evidence, there are various methods to use. I have chosen to include the theme method, cost method and the method of alternative hypotheses.
Evidence State of the sex criminal is especially difficult and the requirement of sufficient evidence may not be remitted in accordance with practice. Prosecutor's investigation and the burden of proof should not be weakened in these cases. His role will be to prove the criminal act whose form is expressed in legislation, case law and legislative history.
In the determination of criminal description, it is not the woman's behavior before the assault or the parties' past relationship that should be the focal point or achieve anything. The criminal justice assessment will be based on whether the victim by force or threat of violence have been subjected to a sexual assault. At the heart of the legal analysis, the perpetrator's actions and what prompted him to carry out the stand.
There are different types of evidence in criminal cases where DNA is one of them. The valuation of the accused and the victim's statements are often the focus of rape trials, as it usually is no testimony or other evidence. The plaintiff's statement must be evaluated and interpreted is rewritten and held in a number of practices from the Supreme Court. Torkel Gregow, former justices and members of the Supreme Court, is a renowned and recognized article put up what he calls the credibility criterion is precisely what the plaintiff's statement.
Although there is seldom a technical or medical evidence of sexual criminal, it is unusual for cases built on pure affidavits, goals that are based solely on the plaintiff's statement and the defendant's information. Support for those versions will be heard often on the very course of events by, for example relatives can attest to the bruises on the victim and on his state of health at different times. It can even be testimony regarding the defendant's drinking and how he / she is acting in connection with it, or any other information that may be relevant to the proceedings and evidence. It is this kind of testimony that called supporting evidence, and it is this type of evidence that I have chosen for further study. It is available in Swedish law, no formal requirements for supporting evidence, but the filling is usually a function of supporting the assessment of an affidavit probative value. In contrast, support the evidence to be consistent with the victim's statement to be sufficient as a full proof. The Supreme Court has been in NJA 1991 p. 83 and NJA 2005 p. 712 stated the importance of supporting evidence in cases that lack other evidence, where rape indictment was dismissed in the latter referring to the lack of supporting evidence, and where the prosecution was successful at first because of the presence of corroborated victim testimony. After these two judgments, it has sought for more the Supreme Court precedent in the area and these have now come in the form of NJA 2009 p. 447 I and II, where the accused was acquitted on the ground just to the lack of sufficient supporting evidence. The views expressed in doctrine for the present appeal has been that there is nothing new in principle statement from HD that came with the above but it is the same guidance as previously stated.
After studying the supporting evidences be or not to be and the importance it has for Swedish law after the statement of the Supreme Court, I wanted to see how the courts interpret and adapt to the practice. I chose to study and analyze the eight sentences from the Court of Appeal for Skåne and Blekinge from 2010 to see whether and if so, how they interpret and make use of evidence support the evaluation of evidence.
I came to the conclusion that in all cases be addressed that there was evidence to support the victim's story but it is only in case number 2 word support evidence printed. In the other cases, it is called support, but one can understand their reasoning that it is supporting evidence they are talking about and are looking for. None of the cases addressing the importance and use of supporting evidence NJA 1991 p. 83, NJA 2005 p. 712 and NJA 2009 p. 447 I and II do. However, I seemed to see that in each case takes up the characteristics of the victim's story, which then form the basis for assessment, where words like cohesive, detailed, convincing, reliability, credibility, etc. used in the assessment. It is also in the majority of cases up to the right has not found any reason why the plaintiff would belie the accused. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Frid, Susanne LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Evaluation of evidence in rape - with a depth in evaluation evidence
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt criminal law
language
Swedish
id
1890531
date added to LUP
2011-04-11 08:37:47
date last changed
2011-04-11 08:37:47
@misc{1890531,
  abstract     = {Rape is a word that arouses many feelings and associations of people in today's society. All have somehow come into contact with it, even if he or she has not personally been affected or knows someone who has. Periodically, the rape and sexual abuse in general is a great and hot topic in the media. I do not always reflect their view of how it looks in the real world. It's easy to think and believe without really being familiar with what it mean, both to be raped or be the one who gets punished for it. 
For the police and prosecutor during the preliminary investigation, it is a difficult task to ask the right questions and analyze whether the allegations true or sufficient to bring charges. When the prosecution and it appears to the court, they have an equally difficult and complex task in which to take care of the details that emerge in the form of testimony, depositions, and hopefully the other evidence. 
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the demonstration and evaluation of the rape offense looks like, and highlight the difficulties and problems. It has also been to produce what the criminal description means and what it takes to produce a document shall be deemed to be rape. The aim has also been looking closely at what supporting evidence is and what the significance is in the process. If used, why it is used and how. The work on this has revealed issues that are: what is required for an act to be classified as rape? What is the assessment and submission of the evidence at the rape crime? What is supporting evidence and what is the significance of the Swedish law and the courts?
Existing law relating to rape is based on a law that was introduced in 2005 after a major reform with some major changes. Before the new legislation has made a study, which was followed by a bill which replaced sexual intercourse with sexual conduct and which would be sufficient that the perpetrator forced the sexual act by assault or otherwise, with violence or the threat of a criminal offense. Rape concept would also be amended to include a helpless condition.
The principle of free assessment of evidence is the procedure of the General Court that the trial must be designed from. The principle of free assessment of evidence also includes the principles of unfettered and free evaluation of evidence. In one trial, there is a proof of the main theme of proof and disproof, and the prosecution has the full burden of proof. There is no proof in RB but the Supreme Court has in practice found it to be no reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty of the offenses he is prosecuted for.
In the evaluation of evidence, an assessment of the relationship between an allegation of a human action or behavior in the past is done together with the evidence of this event. The purpose of this process is to seek conclude that this alleged incident also played out in reality. In evaluating the evidence, there are various methods to use. I have chosen to include the theme method, cost method and the method of alternative hypotheses.
Evidence State of the sex criminal is especially difficult and the requirement of sufficient evidence may not be remitted in accordance with practice. Prosecutor's investigation and the burden of proof should not be weakened in these cases. His role will be to prove the criminal act whose form is expressed in legislation, case law and legislative history.
In the determination of criminal description, it is not the woman's behavior before the assault or the parties' past relationship that should be the focal point or achieve anything. The criminal justice assessment will be based on whether the victim by force or threat of violence have been subjected to a sexual assault. At the heart of the legal analysis, the perpetrator's actions and what prompted him to carry out the stand.
There are different types of evidence in criminal cases where DNA is one of them. The valuation of the accused and the victim's statements are often the focus of rape trials, as it usually is no testimony or other evidence. The plaintiff's statement must be evaluated and interpreted is rewritten and held in a number of practices from the Supreme Court. Torkel Gregow, former justices and members of the Supreme Court, is a renowned and recognized article put up what he calls the credibility criterion is precisely what the plaintiff's statement. 
Although there is seldom a technical or medical evidence of sexual criminal, it is unusual for cases built on pure affidavits, goals that are based solely on the plaintiff's statement and the defendant's information. Support for those versions will be heard often on the very course of events by, for example relatives can attest to the bruises on the victim and on his state of health at different times. It can even be testimony regarding the defendant's drinking and how he / she is acting in connection with it, or any other information that may be relevant to the proceedings and evidence. It is this kind of testimony that called supporting evidence, and it is this type of evidence that I have chosen for further study. It is available in Swedish law, no formal requirements for supporting evidence, but the filling is usually a function of supporting the assessment of an affidavit probative value. In contrast, support the evidence to be consistent with the victim's statement to be sufficient as a full proof. The Supreme Court has been in NJA 1991 p. 83 and NJA 2005 p. 712 stated the importance of supporting evidence in cases that lack other evidence, where rape indictment was dismissed in the latter referring to the lack of supporting evidence, and where the prosecution was successful at first because of the presence of corroborated victim testimony. After these two judgments, it has sought for more the Supreme Court precedent in the area and these have now come in the form of NJA 2009 p. 447 I and II, where the accused was acquitted on the ground just to the lack of sufficient supporting evidence. The views expressed in doctrine for the present appeal has been that there is nothing new in principle statement from HD that came with the above but it is the same guidance as previously stated. 
After studying the supporting evidences be or not to be and the importance it has for Swedish law after the  statement of the Supreme Court, I wanted to see how the courts interpret and adapt to the practice. I chose to study and analyze the eight sentences from the Court of Appeal for Skåne and Blekinge from 2010 to see whether and if so, how they interpret and make use of evidence support the evaluation of evidence.
I came to the conclusion that in all cases be addressed that there was evidence to support the victim's story but it is only in case number 2 word support evidence printed. In the other cases, it is called support, but one can understand their reasoning that it is supporting evidence they are talking about and are looking for. None of the cases addressing the importance and use of supporting evidence NJA 1991 p. 83, NJA 2005 p. 712 and NJA 2009 p. 447 I and II do. However, I seemed to see that in each case takes up the characteristics of the victim's story, which then form the basis for assessment, where words like cohesive, detailed, convincing, reliability, credibility, etc. used in the assessment. It is also in the majority of cases up to the right has not found any reason why the plaintiff would belie the accused.},
  author       = {Frid, Susanne},
  keyword      = {straffrätt criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bevisvärdering vid våldtäkt - med fördjupning på stödbevisning},
  year         = {2011},
}