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Den utvidgade straffskalan för mord - En studie av straffmätningen i tingsrätt och hovrätt

Almroth, Malin LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Mord är det allvarligaste av de grövsta brotten. Straffet för den som berövar en annan person livet har sedan brottsbalkens ikraftträdande år 1965 varit fängelse i 10 år eller på livstid. I syfte att skapa en mer nyanserad straffmätning för mord och en höjd straffnivå för de mord som ej föranleder fängelse på livstid infördes den 1 juli 2009 en utvidgad straffskala för mord, enligt vilken den som uppsåtligen berövar annan livet döms för mord, till fängelse i lägst 10 år och högst 18 år eller till fängelse på livstid.

Vid straffmätningen för mord ska gärningsmannens avsikter eller motiv beaktas. Även försvårande omständigheter som förelåg vid gärningen ska beaktas. En helhetsbedömning av samtliga omständigheter i varje enskilt fall ska... (More)
Mord är det allvarligaste av de grövsta brotten. Straffet för den som berövar en annan person livet har sedan brottsbalkens ikraftträdande år 1965 varit fängelse i 10 år eller på livstid. I syfte att skapa en mer nyanserad straffmätning för mord och en höjd straffnivå för de mord som ej föranleder fängelse på livstid infördes den 1 juli 2009 en utvidgad straffskala för mord, enligt vilken den som uppsåtligen berövar annan livet döms för mord, till fängelse i lägst 10 år och högst 18 år eller till fängelse på livstid.

Vid straffmätningen för mord ska gärningsmannens avsikter eller motiv beaktas. Även försvårande omständigheter som förelåg vid gärningen ska beaktas. En helhetsbedömning av samtliga omständigheter i varje enskilt fall ska göras och domstolen ska därvid beakta att omständigheter kan föreligga i olika grad. Hela straffskalan ska användas vid straffmätningen, men en viss restriktivitet ska iakttas vid utdömande av fängelse på livstid, eftersom livstidsstraffet ska förbehållas de allvarligaste fallen av mord. Ett tidsbestämt straff bör därför vara tillräckligt i de flesta fall och en gärning bör placeras högre upp i den tidsbestämda straffskalan, ju fler försvårande omständigheter som föreligger. När gärningen med hänsyn till omständigheterna anses vara förmildrande, utan att gärningen anses utgöra dråp, bör minimistraffet, fängelse i 10 år utdömas.

För att undersöka hur den utvidgade straffskalan för mord har tillämpats i praktiken har rättsfall från tingsrätterna och hovrätterna från det att bestämmelsen började tillämpas och ungefär 1,5 år framåt i tiden undersökts.

I de fall där minimistraffet, fängelse i 10 år har utdömts har inte några försvårande omständigheter beaktats. Däremot har det beaktats minst en men oftast flera förmildrande omständigheter. Det har i fallen varit fråga om sådana förmildrande omständigheter som har tillmätts särskild vikt, såsom att gärningsmannen innan mordet har provocerats av brottsoffret.

I de rättsfall där 11-12 års fängelse har utdömts har det funnits ett eller några försvårande inslag som har förhindrat domstolen från att utdöma minimistraffet. När det har funnits några försvårande omständigheter har det också funnits minst en förmildrande omständighet av särskild vikt som motiverat placeringen av gärningen lågt i straffskalan, till exempel att gärningsmannen har lidit av en psykisk störning.

Gemensamt för de fall där 13-14 års fängelse har utdömts är att inga förmildrande omständigheter har beaktats i något av fallen. I samtliga fall har dock försvårande omständigheter beaktats. I hälften av fallen har det varit fem till sex sådana omständigheter och i resterande fall utom tre har det funnits två till tre försvårande omständigheter. I de fall där fängelse i 13 år har utdömts har två eller tre försvårande omständigheter beaktats. I de fall där fängelse i 14 år har utdömts har det normalt förelegat fem eller sex stycken försvårande omständigheter.

I fallen där 15-16 års fängelse har utdömts har inga förmildrande omständigheter beaktats, förutom i ett fall. I samtliga fall har dock flera försvårande omständigheter beaktats. Det har varit minst tre försvårande omständigheter i flertalet av fallen, och i nästan hälften av fallen har det varit minst fyra. I samtliga fall har därtill minst en särskilt försvårande omständighet beaktats. I de flesta fall har den utgjorts av att gärningen varit särskilt hänsynslös och brutal eller att händelseförloppet har varit utdraget.

I de fall som undersökts där fängelse i 17-18 år har utdömts har domstolarna sett allvarligt på gärningen, eftersom det inte har förelegat några förmildrande omständigheter, men däremot flera försvårande omständigheter. Det har därtill dessutom funnits minst två särskilt försvårande omständigheter som har beaktats. Främst att tillvägagångssättet har varit särskilt grymt och hänsynslöst eller att händelseförloppet har varit utdraget.

Gemensamt för de fall där fängelse på livstid har utdömts är att inga förmildrande omständigheter har beaktats vid straffmätningen i något fall. Det har däremot funnits fyra eller fler försvårande omständigheter som har beaktats i hälften av fallen och tre stycken försvårande omständigheter som har beaktats i den andra hälften av fallen. Utmärkande för fallen där livstids fängelse har utdömts är vidare att samtliga försvårande omständigheter som beaktats i fallen utom i ett fall, utgör särskilt allvarliga omständigheter. Dessa särskilt allvarliga omständigheter har framförallt utgjorts av att mordet har varit särskilt hänsynslöst eller brutalt, att gärningsmannen har återfallit i uppsåtligt dödande eller begått ytterligare mord, eller att gärningsmannen utöver mordet har dömts för annan allvarlig brottslighet.

Resultaten av undersökningen, talar för att tillämpningen av den utvidgade straffskalan för mord och straffmätningen i de fall som undersökts har varit förhållandevis enhetlig och skett i enlighet med förarbetsuttalandena. Det kan därför på goda grunder påstås att en mer nyanserad straffmätning för mord och en höjd straffnivå för de mord som ej föranleder livstids fängelse därmed har åstadkommits. (Less)
Abstract
Murder is the most serious crime of violence according to Swedish law. The punishment for a person who commits a murder has been either 10 years or a lifetime in imprisonment since the year of 1965. In order to create a more nuanced sentencing for murder and increased punishments for murders that do not give rise to life imprisonment imposed on 1 July 2009 an expanded scale of punishment for murder. According to the expanded scale of punishment a person that with intent kills another person, is sentenced for murder, to imprisonment for either 10 to 18 years or to life imprisonment.

When deciding the punishment for a murder the intentions and the motives of the offender shall be taken into account. Also aggravating circumstances must be... (More)
Murder is the most serious crime of violence according to Swedish law. The punishment for a person who commits a murder has been either 10 years or a lifetime in imprisonment since the year of 1965. In order to create a more nuanced sentencing for murder and increased punishments for murders that do not give rise to life imprisonment imposed on 1 July 2009 an expanded scale of punishment for murder. According to the expanded scale of punishment a person that with intent kills another person, is sentenced for murder, to imprisonment for either 10 to 18 years or to life imprisonment.

When deciding the punishment for a murder the intentions and the motives of the offender shall be taken into account. Also aggravating circumstances must be taken into consideration. All circumstances in a case must be considered, and the court must take into account that circumstances can be present to different extents. The whole scale of punishment is supposed to be used, but the life sentence is supposed to be used only in the most severe cases. A fixed term of imprisonment should be sufficient in most cases. A murder shall to be put higher in the scale of punishment the more aggravating circumstances that are at hand. When a murder only contents extenuating circumstances the offender should be sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment.

To examine how the expanded scale of punishment for murder have been put into practice, cases from district courts (tingsrätter) and courts of appeal (hovrätter) during 1,5 years following the legislative change have been examined.

In the cases where 10 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, no aggravating circumstances have been taken into account. On the other hand, one or several extenuating circumstances have been taken into account, and it has been at least one extenuating circumstance of certain importance taken into account. An example of such a circumstance is if the offender before the murder was provoked by the crime victim.

In the cases where 11-12 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, at least one aggravating circumstance has been taken into account by the court. At least one extenuating circumstance of certain importance has also been taken into account, and therefore a short term of imprisonment has been imposed. An extenuating circumstance of certain importance is for example if the offender suffers from a mental disturbance.

Common for those cases where 13-14 years of imprisonment has been sentenced is that no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. However there have been several aggravating circumstances taken into account. In half of these cases five to six aggravating circumstances have been taken into account, and in the other half of these cases at least two, but mostly three aggravating circumstances have been taken into account. In the cases where 14 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, there have normally been five to six aggravating circumstances taken into account. In the cases where 13 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, two or three aggravating circumstances have been taken into account.

In those cases where 15-16 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. Common for all of the cases are that several aggravating circumstances have been taken into account by the court, at least three such circumstances and in most of the cases at least four such circumstances. In all of the cases at least one aggravating circumstance of certain importance has been taken into account, in most cases this circumstance consisted of the murder being particularly cruel.

The cases where 17-18 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. On the other hand there have been several aggravating circumstances, and at least two aggravating circumstances of certain importance have been taken into account by the court. In most cases these circumstances have consisted of that the murder has been cruel in a certain way and that the murder has been protracted.

Common for the cases where lifetime of imprisonment has been sentenced is that no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. However, three or four aggravating circumstances have been considered by the court in the cases. A characteristic feature is furthermore that all of the aggravating circumstances have been aggravating circumstance of certain importance, for instance that the murder was particularly cruel, that the offender is a relapsed criminal or that the offender has committed several murders.

The results of the thesis indicate that the application of the expanded scale of punishment for murder in the examined cases have been uniform and in accordance with the legislative work. The study shows that a more nuanced sentencing for murder and increased punishments for murders that do not give rise to life imprisonment has been achieved. (Less)
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author
Almroth, Malin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The expanded scale of punishment for murder - An investigation of cases from district courts and courts of appeal,
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt (criminal law), mord, straffmätning, straffskala, livstids fängelse
language
Swedish
id
1890733
date added to LUP
2011-04-12 14:18:01
date last changed
2011-04-12 14:18:01
@misc{1890733,
  abstract     = {Murder is the most serious crime of violence according to Swedish law. The punishment for a person who commits a murder has been either 10 years or a lifetime in imprisonment since the year of 1965. In order to create a more nuanced sentencing for murder and increased punishments for murders that do not give rise to life imprisonment imposed on 1 July 2009 an expanded scale of punishment for murder. According to the expanded scale of punishment a person that with intent kills another person, is sentenced for murder, to imprisonment for either 10 to 18 years or to life imprisonment. 

When deciding the punishment for a murder the intentions and the motives of the offender shall be taken into account. Also aggravating circumstances must be taken into consideration. All circumstances in a case must be considered, and the court must take into account that circumstances can be present to different extents. The whole scale of punishment is supposed to be used, but the life sentence is supposed to be used only in the most severe cases. A fixed term of imprisonment should be sufficient in most cases. A murder shall to be put higher in the scale of punishment the more aggravating circumstances that are at hand. When a murder only contents extenuating circumstances the offender should be sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment.  

To examine how the expanded scale of punishment for murder have been put into practice, cases from district courts (tingsrätter) and courts of appeal (hovrätter) during 1,5 years following the legislative change have been examined. 

In the cases where 10 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, no aggravating circumstances have been taken into account. On the other hand, one or several extenuating circumstances have been taken into account, and it has been at least one extenuating circumstance of certain importance taken into account. An example of such a circumstance is if the offender before the murder was provoked by the crime victim. 

In the cases where 11-12 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, at least one aggravating circumstance has been taken into account by the court. At least one extenuating circumstance of certain importance has also been taken into account, and therefore a short term of imprisonment has been imposed. An extenuating circumstance of certain importance is for example if the offender suffers from a mental disturbance.

Common for those cases where 13-14 years of imprisonment has been sentenced is that no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. However there have been several aggravating circumstances taken into account. In half of these cases five to six aggravating circumstances have been taken into account, and in the other half of these cases at least two, but mostly three aggravating circumstances have been taken into account. In the cases where 14 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, there have normally been five to six aggravating circumstances taken into account. In the cases where 13 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, two or three aggravating circumstances have been taken into account. 

In those cases where 15-16 years of imprisonment have been sentenced, no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. Common for all of the cases are that several aggravating circumstances have been taken into account by the court, at least three such circumstances and in most of the cases at least four such circumstances. In all of the cases at least one aggravating circumstance of certain importance has been taken into account, in most cases this circumstance consisted of the murder being particularly cruel. 

The cases where 17-18 years of imprisonment has been sentenced, no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. On the other hand there have been several aggravating circumstances, and at least two aggravating circumstances of certain importance have been taken into account by the court. In most cases these circumstances have consisted of that the murder has been cruel in a certain way and that the murder has been protracted. 

Common for the cases where lifetime of imprisonment has been sentenced is that no extenuating circumstances have been taken into account. However, three or four aggravating circumstances have been considered by the court in the cases. A characteristic feature is furthermore that all of the aggravating circumstances have been aggravating circumstance of certain importance, for instance that the murder was particularly cruel, that the offender is a relapsed criminal or that the offender has committed several murders.

The results of the thesis indicate that the application of the expanded scale of punishment for murder in the examined cases have been uniform and in accordance with the legislative work. The study shows that a more nuanced sentencing for murder and increased punishments for murders that do not give rise to life imprisonment has been achieved.},
  author       = {Almroth, Malin},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt (criminal law),mord,straffmätning,straffskala,livstids fängelse},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den utvidgade straffskalan för mord - En studie av straffmätningen i tingsrätt och hovrätt},
  year         = {2011},
}