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"Adoption - om rätten till sitt ursprung"

Hockum, Pia LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Uppsatsen behandlar det adopterade barnets rätt till kännedom om sitt ursprung. Frågan har diskuterats vid flertalet tillfällen och är nu aktuell på nytt, då den uppmärksammas i utredningen SOU 2009:61 – Modernare adoptionsregler. I utredningen föreslås en lagstadgad informationsskyldighet för adoptivföräldrar att informera barnet om dess ursprung. Denna bestämmelse skall sakna sanktion, men utgöra en viktig markering om ett barns rätt till sitt ursprung. Uppsatsens bakomliggande syfte är att följa adoptionsinstitutets utveckling i svensk rätt för att skapa en förståelse för de värderingar som ligger till grund för dagens adoptionsregler.

Sedan 1917 har adoption varit ett rättsligt reglerat institut, då det infördes i... (More)
Sammanfattning
Uppsatsen behandlar det adopterade barnets rätt till kännedom om sitt ursprung. Frågan har diskuterats vid flertalet tillfällen och är nu aktuell på nytt, då den uppmärksammas i utredningen SOU 2009:61 – Modernare adoptionsregler. I utredningen föreslås en lagstadgad informationsskyldighet för adoptivföräldrar att informera barnet om dess ursprung. Denna bestämmelse skall sakna sanktion, men utgöra en viktig markering om ett barns rätt till sitt ursprung. Uppsatsens bakomliggande syfte är att följa adoptionsinstitutets utveckling i svensk rätt för att skapa en förståelse för de värderingar som ligger till grund för dagens adoptionsregler.

Sedan 1917 har adoption varit ett rättsligt reglerat institut, då det infördes i svensk lag. Adoption som företeelse har dock vuxit fram ur ättledningen med syfte att ta upp ett biologiskt barn i ätten. Genom institutets framväxt har barnet fått en starkare och säkrare ställning.

Även om begreppet om barnets bästa funnits med sedan den första adoptionslagstiftningen, visar historien att olika värderingar i samhället legat till grund för bedömningen av vad som ansetts vara det bästa för barnet. I början av förra seklet var adoption en lösning på ett samhällsproblem, där samhället inte klarade av att ta hand om fattiga och hemlösa barn. Dessa adoptioner, som benämns ”svaga”, kunde hävas och barnet och de biologiska föräldrarna behöll viss subsidiär underhållsskyldighet och arvsrätt.

Under 1950-talet infördes de så kallade ”starka adoptionerna”, där de biologiska banden helt klipptes bort. Att adoptera var nu inte en lösning på ett samhällsproblem, utan ett sätt att faktiskt bilda familj. Denna tids reformerade adoptionslagstiftning kom att innebära att alla juridiska band med den biologiska familjen upphörde. I takt med att adoptionsförhållandet likställts med det biologiska förhållandet i en familj, har intresset för den biologiska härkomsten blivit allt viktigare.

I dagens adoptionsinstitut är det de enskilda barnens behov som sätts före både föräldrarnas och samhällets behov och önskemål. I takt med att perspektivet mot världen utanför familjen blivit större, får den enskilda individens personliga rättigheter anses ta allt större plats.

Rätten till ett ursprung återfinns fastslagen i både barnkonventionens artikel 7 och i Haagkonventionens artikel 30 och har genom forskning visat sig vara viktig för det adopterade barnets utveckling. Det finns idag verktyg till stöd och hjälp för ett adopterat barn att söka sitt ursprung, och det finns en allmän uppfattning om att det gynnar ett barn att få kunskap om sina rötter. Trots att frågan om att införa en lagstadgad informationsskyldighet för föräldrar tagits upp vid flera tillfällen, saknas idag denna skyldighet i svensk rätt. Genom SOU 2009:61 – Modernare adoptionsregler, belyses frågan på nytt. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
This Graduate Thesis examines the adopted child´s right to knowledge of his or her origin. The biological parentage has been a subject of discussion throughout the history of adoption. In accordance with SOU 2009:61, the Committee has proposed a provision to be introduced requiring a person who has an adopted child, to inform the child of his or her biological origin. The provision is not to be subject to any sanction, but serves as an important indicator that an adopted child has a right to knowledge of his or her origin. Another key purpose of this essay is to examine the history of adoption in Sweden and to create an understanding of norms and values in our society, which subsequently has led to the contemporary Adoption Act.
... (More)
Summary
This Graduate Thesis examines the adopted child´s right to knowledge of his or her origin. The biological parentage has been a subject of discussion throughout the history of adoption. In accordance with SOU 2009:61, the Committee has proposed a provision to be introduced requiring a person who has an adopted child, to inform the child of his or her biological origin. The provision is not to be subject to any sanction, but serves as an important indicator that an adopted child has a right to knowledge of his or her origin. Another key purpose of this essay is to examine the history of adoption in Sweden and to create an understanding of norms and values in our society, which subsequently has led to the contemporary Adoption Act.

In Sweden, the first Adoption Act was passed in 1917. Adoption, however, has its roots in the dynasties, where sometimes a biological child was included in the dynasty through a similar proceeding. Through the history of adoption, the child has successively gained a stronger and a more profound status.

Although the guiding principle of adoption has always been in the best interest of the child, its meaning has varied based on different norms and values in our society. In the beginning of the last century, adoption was a solution to a growing problem with children who lacked economic and social support. The first Adoption Act was referred to as a “weak” adoption, allowing the adoption to be revoked. The legal relationship between the adopted child and the biological parents was maintained, to a certain extent, with the right to inherit from each other, as well as, the responsibility of mutually supporting each other economically.

During the 1950´s, a “full” or “strong” adoption was introduced. This entailed that the legal ties with the biological family would be cut. Adoption was no longer a solution, where the state needed to provide economic support to the poor and orphaned children, but a way to build a family. The Adoption Act was subsequently revised, resulting in all legal ties to the biological family vanishing. The more adoption legally resembles biological parentage, the more important biological origin becomes.

The contemporary Adoption Act gives priority to the interest of the individual child rather than any wish or need the prospective parents or the state could have.

As the perspective of the world outside the family has become more important, the individuals´ right has gained greater respect.


The right to one´s origin, is established in article 7 in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, as well as in article 30 the Hague Convention. Through studies, the right to one´s origin has shown to be of great importance to an adopted child´s development. In today´s society, there are tools to support and help an adopted child with the process of finding his or her biological parentage, along with a general idea that a child will greatly benefit from the knowledge of his or her origin. Although, the biological parentage has been subject for discussion on several previous occasions, the Swedish legislation lacks a provision to inform an adopted child about his or her origin. The Committee was given the assignment to review the legislation, through SOU 2009:61. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hockum, Pia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
"Adoption - with the right to one´s origin"
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
1898058
date added to LUP
2011-04-27 16:11:08
date last changed
2011-04-27 16:11:08
@misc{1898058,
  abstract     = {Summary
This Graduate Thesis examines the adopted child´s right to knowledge of his or her origin. The biological parentage has been a subject of discussion throughout the history of adoption. In accordance with SOU 2009:61, the Committee has proposed a provision to be introduced requiring a person who has an adopted child, to inform the child of his or her biological origin. The provision is not to be subject to any sanction, but serves as an important indicator that an adopted child has a right to knowledge of his or her origin. Another key purpose of this essay is to examine the history of adoption in Sweden and to create an understanding of norms and values in our society, which subsequently has led to the contemporary Adoption Act.

In Sweden, the first Adoption Act was passed in 1917. Adoption, however, has its roots in the dynasties, where sometimes a biological child was included in the dynasty through a similar proceeding. Through the history of adoption, the child has successively gained a stronger and a more profound status.

Although the guiding principle of adoption has always been in the best interest of the child, its meaning has varied based on different norms and values in our society. In the beginning of the last century, adoption was a solution to a growing problem with children who lacked economic and social support. The first Adoption Act was referred to as a “weak” adoption, allowing the adoption to be revoked. The legal relationship between the adopted child and the biological parents was maintained, to a certain extent, with the right to inherit from each other, as well as, the responsibility of mutually supporting each other economically.

During the 1950´s, a “full” or “strong” adoption was introduced. This entailed that the legal ties with the biological family would be cut. Adoption was no longer a solution, where the state needed to provide economic support to the poor and orphaned children, but a way to build a family. The Adoption Act was subsequently revised, resulting in all legal ties to the biological family vanishing. The more adoption legally resembles biological parentage, the more important biological origin becomes.

The contemporary Adoption Act gives priority to the interest of the individual child rather than any wish or need the prospective parents or the state could have. 

As the perspective of the world outside the family has become more important, the individuals´ right has gained greater respect.


The right to one´s origin, is established in article 7 in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, as well as in article 30 the Hague Convention. Through studies, the right to one´s origin has shown to be of great importance to an adopted child´s development. In today´s society, there are tools to support and help an adopted child with the process of finding his or her biological parentage, along with a general idea that a child will greatly benefit from the knowledge of his or her origin. Although, the biological parentage has been subject for discussion on several previous occasions, the Swedish legislation lacks a provision to inform an adopted child about his or her origin. The Committee was given the assignment to review the legislation, through SOU 2009:61.},
  author       = {Hockum, Pia},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {"Adoption - om rätten till sitt ursprung"},
  year         = {2011},
}