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Högt mörkertal vid våldtäkter - varför anmäls så få våldtäkter?

Evertsson, Terese LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det finns ett stort mörkertal vid våldtäkter, vilket betyder att väldigt få anmäler att de har blivit våldtagna. Överlag är det ett stort mörkertal vid sexualbrott och underökningar tyder på att endast 10-20 % av alla sexualbrott anmäls. Ett problem är att många inte vill erkänna att de blivit utsatta, vilket gör att det blir svårt att få reda på hur stort mörkertalet faktiskt är. För att få fram mörkertalet gör man olika undersökningar bl.a. den Nationella trygghetsundersökningen, som genomförs varje år. Undersökningen består av frågor som handlar om utsattheten av brott. Enligt beräkningarna för 2009 skedde över 150 000 brott av sexualbrottskaraktär och endast 12 % anmäldes. Av dessa brott skulle ca 18 000 vara våldtäkter, vilket betyder... (More)
Det finns ett stort mörkertal vid våldtäkter, vilket betyder att väldigt få anmäler att de har blivit våldtagna. Överlag är det ett stort mörkertal vid sexualbrott och underökningar tyder på att endast 10-20 % av alla sexualbrott anmäls. Ett problem är att många inte vill erkänna att de blivit utsatta, vilket gör att det blir svårt att få reda på hur stort mörkertalet faktiskt är. För att få fram mörkertalet gör man olika undersökningar bl.a. den Nationella trygghetsundersökningen, som genomförs varje år. Undersökningen består av frågor som handlar om utsattheten av brott. Enligt beräkningarna för 2009 skedde över 150 000 brott av sexualbrottskaraktär och endast 12 % anmäldes. Av dessa brott skulle ca 18 000 vara våldtäkter, vilket betyder att det sker nästan 50 våldtäkter per dag.

Anledningen till att våldtäkter inte anmäls beror på många olika faktorer, som t.ex. relationen till gärningsmannen, eller att offret inte vet vart hon ska vända sig efter våldtäkten. De flesta våldtäkter sker i en relation av någon som offret känner och p.g.a. förhållandet blir det svårt för offret att anmäla gärningsmannen. Många kvinnor skäms för att de har blivit våldtagna och lägger skulden på sig själva. Har de druckit alkohol, eller varit utmanande klädda verkar chansen vara ännu minde att de anmäler händelsen. En del vill inte gå igenom en rättsprocess och svara på intima frågor inför andra människor. Många vet också att det är få som blir åtalade och dömda, vilket gör att de känner att det inte är någon idé att anmäla våldtäkten.

Mörkertalet är dock olika beroende på vilken typ av våldtäkt det är. I de fall när offret blir våldtagen av en okänd person anmäls de flesta våldtäkter och här finns det endast ett litet mörkertal. Här inberäknas även överfallsvåldtäkter. Är gärningsmannen en person som offret är ytligt bekant med anmäls de inte lika ofta som när gärningsmannen är helt okänd. Störst verkar mörkertalet vara när en våldtäkt begås av en person som offret känner. Det är inom den här kategorin som det begås flest våldtäkter, men minst som anmäls.

Mörkertalet går antagligen inte att få bort helt, men det borde gå att få fler att anmäla våldtäkter. Tyvärr har antalet våldtäkter dock ökat p.g.a. ett utökat nöjesliv med andra alkoholvanor samt att fler personer möts genom Internet. Samtidigt ökar antalet våldtäktsanmälningar konstant och desto mer vi pratar om det och i takt med att samhället förändras så minskar toleransen. Detta påverkar i sin tur lagstiftningen och sexualbrottslagen har ändrats ett flertal gånger bl.a. har våldtäktsparagrafen utökats och idag ses fler brott som våldtäkt än tidigare. Utvecklingen sker hela tiden och en utredning las fram hösten 2010 med ett lagförslag, som till viss del är baserat på samtycke. Förhoppningsvis är vi på väg åt rätt håll och kan få mörkertalet att minska efter hand. (Less)
Abstract
There is a large dark figure of rapes, which means that very few report that they have been raped. Overall is it a large dark figure of sexual crimes and it is estimated that only 10-20 % of all sexual crimes are reported. One problem is that many do not want to admit that they are exposed, so it becomes difficult to know how large the dark figure of crime actually is. To obtain the dark figure of crime different studies like “den Nationella trygghetsundersökningen” are being made, which is carried out every year where people are asked if they have been victims of any crime. According to the estimated figures for 2009 over 150 000 crimes of sexual nature occurred and only 12 % were reported. Of these crimes approximately 18 000 was rapes,... (More)
There is a large dark figure of rapes, which means that very few report that they have been raped. Overall is it a large dark figure of sexual crimes and it is estimated that only 10-20 % of all sexual crimes are reported. One problem is that many do not want to admit that they are exposed, so it becomes difficult to know how large the dark figure of crime actually is. To obtain the dark figure of crime different studies like “den Nationella trygghetsundersökningen” are being made, which is carried out every year where people are asked if they have been victims of any crime. According to the estimated figures for 2009 over 150 000 crimes of sexual nature occurred and only 12 % were reported. Of these crimes approximately 18 000 was rapes, which means that 50 rapes happens every day.

The reasons why rapes are not reported are many, such as the relationship to the perpetrator or that the victim does not know where to turn after the rape. Most rapes take place in a relationship where the victim knows the offender and because of the relationship it becomes difficult for the victim to report the crime. Many women are embarrassed for being raped and blame themselves. Have they been drinking alcohol or been dressed challenging it is even a lesser chance that they report the crime. Many do not want to go through the legal process and answer intimate questions in front of other people. They also know that there are not many offenders that are prosecuted or sentences, so they do not think that there is any point to report the rape.

The dark figure of crime is diverse for different types of rapes. In cases where the victim is raped by an unknown person most rapes are reported and there is an only a small dark figure of crime here. Rape attacks are also included here. Is the offender a person that the victim is superficially familiar with, the rape is not reported as often as when the perpetrator is unknown. The dark figure of crime seems to be biggest when a rape is committed by a person that the victim knows. Within this category the largest number of rapes is, but least that are reported.

Probably there is no way to eliminate the dark figure of rapes completely, but there should be ways to get more victims to report rapes. Unfortunately the number of rapes has increased due to an expanded nightlife, with other consummation patterns and more people meets through the Internet. At the same time the number of rape reports is increasing constantly. The more we talk about it and as society changes the tolerance decreases. This in its turn affects the legislators and the law of sex crimes has been amended several times. For example the rape crime has expanded and more crimes are seen as rape than before. Development occurs all the time and an inquiry was put forward in the fall of 2010 with a bill where a part is based on consent. Hopefully we are heading in the right direction, so that the dark figure of rapes can decrease. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Evertsson, Terese LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A high dark figure of rapes - why is so few rapes reported?
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
obligatoriska, kontrollerade ämnesord, våldtäkt, mörkertal, våldtäktsanmälningar
language
Swedish
id
1968804
date added to LUP
2011-06-03 11:06:12
date last changed
2011-06-03 11:06:12
@misc{1968804,
  abstract     = {There is a large dark figure of rapes, which means that very few report that they have been raped. Overall is it a large dark figure of sexual crimes and it is estimated that only 10-20 % of all sexual crimes are reported. One problem is that many do not want to admit that they are exposed, so it becomes difficult to know how large the dark figure of crime actually is. To obtain the dark figure of crime different studies like “den Nationella trygghetsundersökningen” are being made, which is carried out every year where people are asked if they have been victims of any crime. According to the estimated figures for 2009 over 150 000 crimes of sexual nature occurred and only 12 % were reported. Of these crimes approximately 18 000 was rapes, which means that 50 rapes happens every day.

The reasons why rapes are not reported are many, such as the relationship to the perpetrator or that the victim does not know where to turn after the rape. Most rapes take place in a relationship where the victim knows the offender and because of the relationship it becomes difficult for the victim to report the crime. Many women are embarrassed for being raped and blame themselves. Have they been drinking alcohol or been dressed challenging it is even a lesser chance that they report the crime. Many do not want to go through the legal process and answer intimate questions in front of other people. They also know that there are not many offenders that are prosecuted or sentences, so they do not think that there is any point to report the rape.

The dark figure of crime is diverse for different types of rapes. In cases where the victim is raped by an unknown person most rapes are reported and there is an only a small dark figure of crime here. Rape attacks are also included here. Is the offender a person that the victim is superficially familiar with, the rape is not reported as often as when the perpetrator is unknown. The dark figure of crime seems to be biggest when a rape is committed by a person that the victim knows. Within this category the largest number of rapes is, but least that are reported.

Probably there is no way to eliminate the dark figure of rapes completely, but there should be ways to get more victims to report rapes. Unfortunately the number of rapes has increased due to an expanded nightlife, with other consummation patterns and more people meets through the Internet. At the same time the number of rape reports is increasing constantly. The more we talk about it and as society changes the tolerance decreases. This in its turn affects the legislators and the law of sex crimes has been amended several times. For example the rape crime has expanded and more crimes are seen as rape than before. Development occurs all the time and an inquiry was put forward in the fall of 2010 with a bill where a part is based on consent. Hopefully we are heading in the right direction, so that the dark figure of rapes can decrease.},
  author       = {Evertsson, Terese},
  keyword      = {obligatoriska,kontrollerade ämnesord,våldtäkt,mörkertal,våldtäktsanmälningar},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Högt mörkertal vid våldtäkter - varför anmäls så få våldtäkter?},
  year         = {2011},
}