Advanced

Måste man samtycka till samlag? - En studie av en samtyckesreglerings för- och nackdelar med en medial utblick

Johnsson, Nina LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sexualbrotten i svensk rätt kräver idag att gärningsmannen har använt någon typ av våld eller hot, eller har utnyttjat ett hjälplöst tillstånd. År 2003 kom emellertid Europadomstolens avgörande i Bulgariendomen, i vilken kan utläsas att varje sexuell handling som begås utan samtycke ska vara straffbar. Sedan dess har det i Sverige livligt debatterats om huruvida domen innebär att den svenska lagen måste ändras så att det uttrycks direkt i lagtext att samtyckesbrist konstituerar brott, eller om man tolkningsvis kan läsa in detta under nuvarande straffbud. Inom doktrin råder skilda åsikter, och även inom media har ämnet debatterats.

Trots att 6 kap BrB (som reglerar sexualbrott) reformerades 2005, tillsattes en ny utredning redan 2008 med... (More)
Sexualbrotten i svensk rätt kräver idag att gärningsmannen har använt någon typ av våld eller hot, eller har utnyttjat ett hjälplöst tillstånd. År 2003 kom emellertid Europadomstolens avgörande i Bulgariendomen, i vilken kan utläsas att varje sexuell handling som begås utan samtycke ska vara straffbar. Sedan dess har det i Sverige livligt debatterats om huruvida domen innebär att den svenska lagen måste ändras så att det uttrycks direkt i lagtext att samtyckesbrist konstituerar brott, eller om man tolkningsvis kan läsa in detta under nuvarande straffbud. Inom doktrin råder skilda åsikter, och även inom media har ämnet debatterats.

Trots att 6 kap BrB (som reglerar sexualbrott) reformerades 2005, tillsattes en ny utredning redan 2008 med uppdraget att ta ställning till om det nuvarande kravet på tvång som grund för straffansvar för våldtäkt bör ersättas med ett krav på bristande samtycke, och att föreslå hur en sådan reglering skulle kunna se ut. Förslaget redovisades i SOU 2010:71, där utredningen visar förslag både på en reglering som enbart bygger på samtyckesbrist och på en reglering som bygger på en utvidgning av dagens reglering i kombination med en kompletterande samtyckesreglering.

När detta förslag presenterades under hösten 2010 var redan en debatt om sexualbrott aktuell i Sverige, med anledning av sexualbrottsanklagelserna mot Julian Assange. Diskussionen kom att beröra vad som ska betraktas som ett sexuellt övergrepp och var gränsen går mellan övergrepp och dålig sexuell upplevelse och i media framkom många olika åsikter både från jurister och från lekmän. Assangefallet blev därför en intressant utgångspunkt för att i uppsatsen belysa sexualbrotten inte bara juridiskt utan även från lekmäns synpunkt, med fokus på hur mediediskussionen påverkar rättstillämpningen. Assangefallet har i uppsatsen även använts för att jämföra dagens reglering med lagförslaget i SOU 2010:71.

Uppsatsens syfte har varit att utreda en samtyckesreglerings för- och nackdelar med bakgrund mot de åsikter som framkommit både i juridisk doktrin och i media. Min slutsats är att den typ av kompletterande samtyckesreglering som föreslås i SOU 2010:71 är en tillfredsställande lösning, då man får en sådan reglerings fördelar vad gäller normerande verkan och möjlighet att täcka in fler straffvärda handlingar samtidigt som våldtäktsbrottet reserveras för de allra allvarligaste sexuella kränkningarna i en egen paragraf. (Less)
Abstract
The sexual offences in Swedish law of today require that the perpetrator has used violence or threats, or that he has exploited a helpless state. However, in 2003 the European Court of Human Rights delivered a judgment in the case of M.C v. Bulgaria, which stated that any non-consensual sexual act must be punishable. There has been a legal discussion in Sweden ever since, regarding whether this judgment means that the actual wording of the sections in the law must be changed into saying that lack of consent constitutes a crime, or if it’s possible to interpret this under present sections. In doctrine the opinions differ, and the subject has been debated in media as well.

Even though chapter 6 of the Penal Code (which regulates sexual... (More)
The sexual offences in Swedish law of today require that the perpetrator has used violence or threats, or that he has exploited a helpless state. However, in 2003 the European Court of Human Rights delivered a judgment in the case of M.C v. Bulgaria, which stated that any non-consensual sexual act must be punishable. There has been a legal discussion in Sweden ever since, regarding whether this judgment means that the actual wording of the sections in the law must be changed into saying that lack of consent constitutes a crime, or if it’s possible to interpret this under present sections. In doctrine the opinions differ, and the subject has been debated in media as well.

Even though chapter 6 of the Penal Code (which regulates sexual offences) was reformed in 2005, a new committee was appointed already in 2008 to investigate if the present requirement for coercion as grounding liability for rape should be replaced with a requirement for a lack of consent to constitute rape, and to propose how such a regulation could be constructed. The proposal was presented in SOU 2010:71, where the committee presents its draft for a regulation based solely on a lack of consent as well as its draft for a regulation built on an extension of the present regulation combined with a supplementary regulation stating that lack of consent also in other situations should be punishable.

When this proposal was presented in the fall of 2010, a debate regarding sexual offences was already arisen in Sweden because of the allegations of sexual offences against Julian Assange. The discussion concerned what should be seen as a sexual offence and where the line is drawn between an offence and just a bad sexual experience, and in media many different views from lawyers as well as from laymen were put forward. Therefore, the Assange case was interesting to use in this thesis as a basis for illustrating the sexual offences not exclusively from a legal view but also from a social view, focusing on how the media discussion influences the application of the law. The Assange case has also been used in this thesis to make a comparison between the present regulation and the proposed regulation in SOU 2010:71.

The purpose of this thesis has been to examine the advantages and disadvantages of a regulation based on a lack of consent in the light of the points of view put forward in legal doctrine as well as in media. My conclusion is that a supplementary regulation based on a lack of consent as the one proposed by the committee in SOU 2010:71 is a satisfying solution, since we’ll get the advantages of this regulation in terms of legislative effect and possibility to cover more of the reprehensible acts at the same time as the rape crime is reserved for the most severe sexual violations in its own section. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Johnsson, Nina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Sex and consent - Positive and negative aspects of a sexual offence regulation based on a lack of consent
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, sexualbrott, våldtäkt, samtycke, samtyckesreglering
language
Swedish
id
1974132
date added to LUP
2011-06-07 10:46:31
date last changed
2011-06-07 10:46:31
@misc{1974132,
  abstract     = {The sexual offences in Swedish law of today require that the perpetrator has used violence or threats, or that he has exploited a helpless state. However, in 2003 the European Court of Human Rights delivered a judgment in the case of M.C v. Bulgaria, which stated that any non-consensual sexual act must be punishable. There has been a legal discussion in Sweden ever since, regarding whether this judgment means that the actual wording of the sections in the law must be changed into saying that lack of consent constitutes a crime, or if it’s possible to interpret this under present sections. In doctrine the opinions differ, and the subject has been debated in media as well.

Even though chapter 6 of the Penal Code (which regulates sexual offences) was reformed in 2005, a new committee was appointed already in 2008 to investigate if the present requirement for coercion as grounding liability for rape should be replaced with a requirement for a lack of consent to constitute rape, and to propose how such a regulation could be constructed. The proposal was presented in SOU 2010:71, where the committee presents its draft for a regulation based solely on a lack of consent as well as its draft for a regulation built on an extension of the present regulation combined with a supplementary regulation stating that lack of consent also in other situations should be punishable. 

When this proposal was presented in the fall of 2010, a debate regarding sexual offences was already arisen in Sweden because of the allegations of sexual offences against Julian Assange. The discussion concerned what should be seen as a sexual offence and where the line is drawn between an offence and just a bad sexual experience, and in media many different views from lawyers as well as from laymen were put forward. Therefore, the Assange case was interesting to use in this thesis as a basis for illustrating the sexual offences not exclusively from a legal view but also from a social view, focusing on how the media discussion influences the application of the law. The Assange case has also been used in this thesis to make a comparison between the present regulation and the proposed regulation in SOU 2010:71.

The purpose of this thesis has been to examine the advantages and disadvantages of a regulation based on a lack of consent in the light of the points of view put forward in legal doctrine as well as in media. My conclusion is that a supplementary regulation based on a lack of consent as the one proposed by the committee in SOU 2010:71 is a satisfying solution, since we’ll get the advantages of this regulation in terms of legislative effect and possibility to cover more of the reprehensible acts at the same time as the rape crime is reserved for the most severe sexual violations in its own section.},
  author       = {Johnsson, Nina},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,sexualbrott,våldtäkt,samtycke,samtyckesreglering},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Måste man samtycka till samlag? - En studie av en samtyckesreglerings för- och nackdelar med en medial utblick},
  year         = {2011},
}