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Surrogatarrangemang i ett rättighetsperspektiv - vem har rätt till vad och vem har rätt till vem?

Rosberg Gustafsson, Cecilia LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Äger varje person rätt att bli förälder? Även om inte staten kan sägas vara skyldig att erbjuda behandling för att avhjälpa barnlöshet kan människor, efter känsla, resonera kring denna frågas rimlighet. Oavsett inställningen är en intressant följdfråga; i så fall till vilket pris? När man talar om surrogatarrangemang är det ofta just pris som på något sätt kommer på tal. Inte pris som i valutamening ensamt, utan även i form av risker av olika slag som de inblandade kan tänkas komma att lida. Globalt accepteras och nyttjas surrogatmödraskap idag i allt högre grad. I Sverige är surrogatarrangemang otillåtna och ett genomförande trots den negativt inställda lagstiftningen kan leda till vissa juridiska komplikationer för såväl barnet som för... (More)
Äger varje person rätt att bli förälder? Även om inte staten kan sägas vara skyldig att erbjuda behandling för att avhjälpa barnlöshet kan människor, efter känsla, resonera kring denna frågas rimlighet. Oavsett inställningen är en intressant följdfråga; i så fall till vilket pris? När man talar om surrogatarrangemang är det ofta just pris som på något sätt kommer på tal. Inte pris som i valutamening ensamt, utan även i form av risker av olika slag som de inblandade kan tänkas komma att lida. Globalt accepteras och nyttjas surrogatmödraskap idag i allt högre grad. I Sverige är surrogatarrangemang otillåtna och ett genomförande trots den negativt inställda lagstiftningen kan leda till vissa juridiska komplikationer för såväl barnet som för andra inblandade. Att surrogatarrangemang inte tillåts här i riket betyder emellertid inte att svenska myndigheter eller domstolar inte berörs av tvister som har koppling till detta särskilda förhållande. Barnönskande personer som inte kan ta hjälp av en surrogatmoder i Sverige kan vända sig till utlandet för själva processens genomförande och senare återkomma till Sverige med det framfödda barnet. Vid hemkomsten kan därefter i den rättsliga praktiken vissa problem uppkomma, exempelvis i samband med att barnet ska folkbokföras eller vid någon slags tvist av familjerättslig karaktär.

Inledningsvis förs i detta arbete ett rättighetsperspektiv fram, med inriktning på surrogatarrangemang, vilket är ämnat att speglas mot vad som senare i arbetet framförs om svensk lagstiftning på området och vissa praktiska utländska exempel. Relevant vid inriktning på rättighetsperspektivet är att se till vissa internationella konventionstexter vilka är ämnade att skydda mänskliga rättigheter. Bland annat har Europakonventionens artikel 8 relevans genom dess skydd för privat- och familjeliv. FN:s Barnkonvention innehåller också vissa stadganden av särskild vikt inom ämnet, såsom den uttryckligt omfattande bestämmelsen om beaktande av barnets bästa intresse vid alla åtgärder som rör barn.

Begrundar man vad det egentligen är som hanteras vid surrogatarrangemang, framkommer vissa etiska aspekter som är väsentliga att värdera för att man ska kunna framföra välgrundade argument kring sin inställning. Bland annat bör man i samband med övervägande av lagstiftning inom området reflektera över de involverade parternas motiv till genomförande av arrangemanget. Viktigt är också att adressera det avtalsförhållande som surrogatarrangemang innebär. Finns det omständigheter i förfarandets natur som torde göra sådana avtal ogiltiga oavsett lydelse? Inom denna debatt framkommer bland annat resonemang kring omöjlighet att avtala om mänskliga värden och risk för exploatering som en följd av arrangemangets genomförande, eller till och med ensamt genom dess existens.

Svensk rätt innehåller reglering om reproduktiv teknik men lagstiftningen tillåter inte surrogatarrangemang. Som en grundläggande familjerättslig princip står moderskapspresumtionen; att det är den kvinna som föder ett barn som är att anse som barnets moder. Presumtionen har upprätthållits genom den utveckling av lagstiftningen som skett inom ämnet reproduktionsteknik. Principen har även vidmakthållits vid upptagandet av ett mål i Högsta domstolen där fråga om överensstämmelse mellan genetiskt, socialt och rättsligt föräldraskap aktualiserades.

Den svenska juridiska situationen åsido, förekommer i realiteten på en del håll utomlands utbjudande av surrogatarrangemang till paketpris. Att se hur olika hårt hållna utvecklingar inom området kan driva till framväxandet av en sådan marknad, snarare än att hållas på en mer intim och övervakad nivå, kan vara värdefullt vid begrundandet av vilken typ av lagstiftning man finner önskvärd inom ämnet surrogatarrangemang. (Less)
Abstract
Is everyone entitled to a right to parenthood? People may have a sense of what should be potential common rights even in cases where the government cannot always be considered liable to offer help, as in supporting those suffering from infertility. As a supplementary question one can ask: into what considerations could the right to parenthood extend? When it comes to surrogate motherhood, amounts are usually the subject of some sort. Money is not always the primary concern, the amount of risk that subjects involved in the surrogacy arrangement are exposed to are also often unclear. In a world where surrogate motherhood is increasingly becoming an accepted method against infertility, Swedish legislation currently considers this method... (More)
Is everyone entitled to a right to parenthood? People may have a sense of what should be potential common rights even in cases where the government cannot always be considered liable to offer help, as in supporting those suffering from infertility. As a supplementary question one can ask: into what considerations could the right to parenthood extend? When it comes to surrogate motherhood, amounts are usually the subject of some sort. Money is not always the primary concern, the amount of risk that subjects involved in the surrogacy arrangement are exposed to are also often unclear. In a world where surrogate motherhood is increasingly becoming an accepted method against infertility, Swedish legislation currently considers this method illegal, and it is from there that legal complications arise. The fact that this method is against the law does not, however, automatically denote that the subject will never be debated in court or before governmental institutions. For example, although a Swedish citizen cannot employ a surrogate mother to carry a child in Sweden, options might still be available abroad. Then, when the child is born and brought back with its intended parents, problems with registering the child and the proposed guardians might arise. Difficult disputes could also occur within the nature of family law, with issues such as concerning inheritance law or maintenance claims.

The aim of this essay is to initially present the subject of surrogacy from a legal rights perspective. Furthermore, I will illustrate discussions on the subject in Swedish law and analyze this in relation to the chosen focus, with help of certain international practical examples. Whilst focusing on rights, provisions from the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as well as from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, are relevant to introduce.

When trying to define surrogacy one finds that many ethical aspects arise. In order to construct a considered opinion on the matter these issues need to be deconstructed and evaluated. One important consideration is whether different motives of the parties involved in an arrangement should be accepted or not. Another important question, which the debate should address, is how an agreement on surrogacy should be assessed from a contract law perspective. Are there circumstances, depending on the nature of surrogacy, which should make contracts void no matter the wording? This debate contains reasoning regarding human values and, in cases where these values are ignored, the risk of exploitation.

Swedish law contains legislation on reproductive technology but it does not allow surrogacy. Mater simper certa est, meaning that the mother of a child is always certain, has been given fundamental value in Swedish family law and signifies the basis of the negative attitude against surrogate motherhood. The principle was also given assured significance in a case set before the Swedish Supreme Court when it was debated how to merge different aspects of parenthood; genetic, social and legal, when those address different persons.

The Swedish legal situation aside, there are other countries where surrogacy arrangements are legally offered as package deals. Different legislations lead to different growths and effects on the surrogacy market and it should be valuable to consider these differences when deciding what legislation one finds desirable for their own society. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Rosberg Gustafsson, Cecilia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Rights of Surrogacy
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
surrogat, surrogatmoder, surrogatmödraskap, moderskap, EKMR, barnkonventionen, barnets bästa, assisterad befruktning, surrogacy, surrogate
language
Swedish
id
1983713
date added to LUP
2011-06-27 13:43:52
date last changed
2011-06-27 13:43:52
@misc{1983713,
  abstract     = {Is everyone entitled to a right to parenthood? People may have a sense of what should be potential common rights even in cases where the government cannot always be considered liable to offer help, as in supporting those suffering from infertility. As a supplementary question one can ask: into what considerations could the right to parenthood extend? When it comes to surrogate motherhood, amounts are usually the subject of some sort. Money is not always the primary concern, the amount of risk that subjects involved in the surrogacy arrangement are exposed to are also often unclear. In a world where surrogate motherhood is increasingly becoming an accepted method against infertility, Swedish legislation currently considers this method illegal, and it is from there that legal complications arise. The fact that this method is against the law does not, however, automatically denote that the subject will never be debated in court or before governmental institutions. For example, although a Swedish citizen cannot employ a surrogate mother to carry a child in Sweden, options might still be available abroad. Then, when the child is born and brought back with its intended parents, problems with registering the child and the proposed guardians might arise. Difficult disputes could also occur within the nature of family law, with issues such as concerning inheritance law or maintenance claims.

The aim of this essay is to initially present the subject of surrogacy from a legal rights perspective. Furthermore, I will illustrate discussions on the subject in Swedish law and analyze this in relation to the chosen focus, with help of certain international practical examples. Whilst focusing on rights, provisions from the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as well as from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, are relevant to introduce. 

When trying to define surrogacy one finds that many ethical aspects arise. In order to construct a considered opinion on the matter these issues need to be deconstructed and evaluated. One important consideration is whether different motives of the parties involved in an arrangement should be accepted or not. Another important question, which the debate should address, is how an agreement on surrogacy should be assessed from a contract law perspective. Are there circumstances, depending on the nature of surrogacy, which should make contracts void no matter the wording? This debate contains reasoning regarding human values and, in cases where these values are ignored, the risk of exploitation.

Swedish law contains legislation on reproductive technology but it does not allow surrogacy. Mater simper certa est, meaning that the mother of a child is always certain, has been given fundamental value in Swedish family law and signifies the basis of the negative attitude against surrogate motherhood. The principle was also given assured significance in a case set before the Swedish Supreme Court when it was debated how to merge different aspects of parenthood; genetic, social and legal, when those address different persons.

The Swedish legal situation aside, there are other countries where surrogacy arrangements are legally offered as package deals. Different legislations lead to different growths and effects on the surrogacy market and it should be valuable to consider these differences when deciding what legislation one finds desirable for their own society.},
  author       = {Rosberg Gustafsson, Cecilia},
  keyword      = {surrogat,surrogatmoder,surrogatmödraskap,moderskap,EKMR,barnkonventionen,barnets bästa,assisterad befruktning,surrogacy,surrogate},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Surrogatarrangemang i ett rättighetsperspektiv - vem har rätt till vad och vem har rätt till vem?},
  year         = {2011},
}