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Tvångsvård av unga - En studie av gränsdragningen mellan LVU och LPT

Alenius, Hanna LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Föreliggande uppsats behandlar två omdiskuterade lagar, lagen med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga (LVU) respektive lagen om psykiatrisk tvångsvård (LPT). Det primära syftet är att utröna gränsdragningen i rättens kriterier för tvångsvård av den unge, dels enligt LVU, dels enligt LPT. I vilka fall tillämpas LVU respektive LPT för den unge? Jag försöker även belysa om det råder förenlighet mellan gällande rätt och hur det ser ut i realiteten samt om det går att urskilja om det föreligger en lucka i regelsystemet då varken LVU eller LPT är tillämplig.

Uppsatsen består först av en deskriptiv del där gällande rätt avseende vilka förutsättningar som krävs för att LVU respektive LPT skall tillämpas samt gränsdragningens uppmärksamhet i... (More)
Föreliggande uppsats behandlar två omdiskuterade lagar, lagen med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga (LVU) respektive lagen om psykiatrisk tvångsvård (LPT). Det primära syftet är att utröna gränsdragningen i rättens kriterier för tvångsvård av den unge, dels enligt LVU, dels enligt LPT. I vilka fall tillämpas LVU respektive LPT för den unge? Jag försöker även belysa om det råder förenlighet mellan gällande rätt och hur det ser ut i realiteten samt om det går att urskilja om det föreligger en lucka i regelsystemet då varken LVU eller LPT är tillämplig.

Uppsatsen består först av en deskriptiv del där gällande rätt avseende vilka förutsättningar som krävs för att LVU respektive LPT skall tillämpas samt gränsdragningens uppmärksamhet i två statliga utredningar. Därefter följer en empirisk studie i vilken Länsrätten i Skåne län och Länsrätten i Kronobergs läns bedömningar av förutsättningarna enligt LVU respektive LPT granskas. Jag reflekterar under varje kategori av beteende och/eller psykisk störning angående gränsdragningsproblematiken samt om det föreligger en lucka i regelsystemet. Slutligen analyseras slutresultatet med tonvikt på hur gränsen dras mellan LVU och LPT, undersökningsresultatets förenlighet med gällande rätt, gränslandet mellan LVU och LPT och avslutningsvis uppsatsens slutsatser.

Det finns enligt gällande rätt inte någon tydlig skiljelinje mellan LVU och LPT. Underrätterna ställs inför problem då det finns otillräckligt utredda begrepp gällande gränsdragningen mellan LVU och LPT. Följden av detta kan resultera i att vissa fall behandlas olika, oaktat att det rör sig om samma slags beteende eller psykisk störning.

Av uppsatsens empiriska studie har det framkommit att den unge beviljas vård med stöd av LPT i de fall då den unge har allvarliga ätstörningar eller fått ställda diagnoser som anges i förarbetena. Vård med stöd av LVU beviljas i de fall då den unge innehar ett missbruk som grundas på psykiska problem, missbruket behöver dock inte vara allvarligt. LVU tillämpas även i de allra flesta fall gällande unga som har ett aggressivt, våldsamt och hotfullt beteende, även om det inte är missbruksrelaterat. Det är däremot oklart var gränsdragningen går för de unga som innehar svår ångest, allvarliga suicidtankar eller har gjort suicidförsök. Tidigare kontakt med psykiatrin och den unges ålder synes få betydelse för om LVU eller LPT aktualiseras. Missbrukar den unge talar det för att LVU kommer att tillämpas.

Självskadebeteende förefaller befinna sig i ett gränsland mellan LVU och LPT. Varken tvångsvård enligt LVU eller LPT kan således aktualiseras. Denna gråzon mellan allvarlig psykisk störning och socialt nedbrytande beteende föreligger p.g.a. att lagliga förutsättningar för att tvångsvårda unga med självskadebeteende inte erhålls vare sig i LPT eller i LVU, tillhörande förarbetsuttalanden eller rättspraxis. Enligt undersökningen beviljas visserligen åtskilliga unga med självskadebeteende vård, det är dock inte självskadebeteendet i sig som utgör den primära orsaken utan vårdbehovet är främst påkallat av andra orsaker såsom missbruk eller dragning till destruktiva miljöer. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis deals with two very highly debated regulation concerning the Care of Young Persons Act (1990:52) and the Involuntary Psychiatric Care Act (1992:1128), hereafter referred to as the LVU and the LPT. The primary purpose of this thesis is to explore the factual boundaries put in place by the courts’ criteria for the involuntary care of young people in accordance with the LVU and the LPT. When has the LVU respectively the LPT been applied and is there a clear constituency between current statute and actual application, or whether one can distinguish a loophole in the current legal system when neither the LVU nor the LPT has been applied.

The first part of the thesis consists of a descriptive analysis concerning both current... (More)
This thesis deals with two very highly debated regulation concerning the Care of Young Persons Act (1990:52) and the Involuntary Psychiatric Care Act (1992:1128), hereafter referred to as the LVU and the LPT. The primary purpose of this thesis is to explore the factual boundaries put in place by the courts’ criteria for the involuntary care of young people in accordance with the LVU and the LPT. When has the LVU respectively the LPT been applied and is there a clear constituency between current statute and actual application, or whether one can distinguish a loophole in the current legal system when neither the LVU nor the LPT has been applied.

The first part of the thesis consists of a descriptive analysis concerning both current statute in relation to the actual prospects required for the application of the LVU and LPT, and the attention the boundaries were given in two separate government research. This part is followed by an empirical survey examining Skåne’s and Kronoberg’s county administrative court’s judgments related to the LVU and the LPT. I reflect under each category of behavioral or psychological disorder, the problem of boundary setting and whether there exists a gap in the legal system. Finally, the result is analyzed with an emphasis on how the boundary is drawn between LVU and LPT, how the research results coincide with current statute, the margins between the LVU and LPT, and the thesis’ conclusions.

There is, according to current statute, no clear differentiation between LVU and LPT. Those forced to apply set provision are faced with a dilemma due to the lack of concrete notions concerning the boundary between LVU and LPT. This results in that some cases concerning the same form of behavioral or psychological disorder are treated differently.

In accordance with the empirical study, a child is often granted the care necessary with support under the LPT in those cases that the child has been diagnosed with severe eating disorder as demanded by initial legislative work. Care with support under LVU is granted in those cases the child has some form of substance abuse, though not necessary a severe, which derives from psychological problems. LVU is also often applied in those cases where the child has an aggressive, violent and threatening behavior not related to any form of substance abuse. It is, however, unclear where the boundary is placed for those children suffering from severe angst, suicidal tendencies and/or suicidal thoughts. Early contact with the psychiatric ward and the child’s age seems to have an impact on whether LVU or LPT is actualized. There is however a likelihood that LVU will be applied if it is found that the child has a form of substance abuse.

Self-mutilation behavior seems to fall between the lines of LVU and LPT, entailing that Involuntary care under either the LVU or the LPT can be applied. The grey-zone between severe psychological disorder and socially destructive behavior exists due to the fact that neither the LPT nor the LVU provides with the legal prospects for actualizing involuntary care in those cases involving self-destructive behavior. Such involuntary admissions are also not supported by case-law or initial legislative work. It has however been stated by the study that those children with some form of self-destructive/self-mutilation behavior are granted care, though their behavior is not the primary cause for care being granted – it is often due to forms of substance abuse and a tendency to seek-out destructive environments. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alenius, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Involuntary care of young people with psychological disorders
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
social and welfare law
language
Swedish
id
2064669
date added to LUP
2011-08-22 16:46:08
date last changed
2011-08-22 16:46:08
@misc{2064669,
  abstract     = {This thesis deals with two very highly debated regulation concerning the Care of Young Persons Act (1990:52) and the Involuntary Psychiatric Care Act (1992:1128), hereafter referred to as the LVU and the LPT. The primary purpose of this thesis is to explore the factual boundaries put in place by the courts’ criteria for the involuntary care of young people in accordance with the LVU and the LPT. When has the LVU respectively the LPT been applied and is there a clear constituency between current statute and actual application, or whether one can distinguish a loophole in the current legal system when neither the LVU nor the LPT has been applied.  

The first part of the thesis consists of a descriptive analysis concerning both current statute in relation to the actual prospects required for the application of the LVU and LPT, and the attention the boundaries were given in two separate government research. This part is followed by an empirical survey examining Skåne’s and Kronoberg’s county administrative court’s judgments related to the LVU and the LPT. I reflect under each category of behavioral or psychological disorder, the problem of boundary setting and whether there exists a gap in the legal system. Finally, the result is analyzed with an emphasis on how the boundary is drawn between LVU and LPT, how the research results coincide with current statute, the margins between the LVU and LPT, and the thesis’ conclusions.   

There is, according to current statute, no clear differentiation between LVU and LPT. Those forced to apply set provision are faced with a dilemma due to the lack of concrete notions concerning the boundary between LVU and LPT. This results in that some cases concerning the same form of behavioral or psychological disorder are treated differently. 

In accordance with the empirical study, a child is often granted the care necessary with support under the LPT in those cases that the child has been diagnosed with severe eating disorder as demanded by initial legislative work. Care with support under LVU is granted in those cases the child has some form of substance abuse, though not necessary a severe, which derives from psychological problems. LVU is also often applied in those cases where the child has an aggressive, violent and threatening behavior not related to any form of substance abuse. It is, however, unclear where the boundary is placed for those children suffering from severe angst, suicidal tendencies and/or suicidal thoughts. Early contact with the psychiatric ward and the child’s age seems to have an impact on whether LVU or LPT is actualized. There is however a likelihood that LVU will be applied if it is found that the child has a form of substance abuse. 

Self-mutilation behavior seems to fall between the lines of LVU and LPT, entailing that Involuntary care under either the LVU or the LPT can be applied. The grey-zone between severe psychological disorder and socially destructive behavior exists due to the fact that neither the LPT nor the LVU provides with the legal prospects for actualizing involuntary care in those cases involving self-destructive behavior. Such involuntary admissions are also not supported by case-law or initial legislative work. It has however been stated by the study that those children with some form of self-destructive/self-mutilation behavior are granted care, though their behavior is not the primary cause for care being granted – it is often due to forms of substance abuse and a tendency to seek-out destructive environments.},
  author       = {Alenius, Hanna},
  keyword      = {social and welfare law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tvångsvård av unga - En studie av gränsdragningen mellan LVU och LPT},
  year         = {2011},
}