Advanced

Nödvärn - den enskildes rättigheter vid ett brottsligt angrepp

Almström, Stina LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract
This paper describes the Swedish law regarding the right of self-defense. The right of self-defense is the right for civilians acting on their own behalf to defend themselves when a violent criminal attack occurs.
Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved to a civilian who uses his right of self-defense when being attacked. The paper will describe established law and analyze the application of the right to self-defense in case law. Finally, an analyze of the right of self-defense, the way it is regulated in Swedish law will be made.

The right of self-defense is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, whenever a violent criminal attacks occurs. The... (More)
This paper describes the Swedish law regarding the right of self-defense. The right of self-defense is the right for civilians acting on their own behalf to defend themselves when a violent criminal attack occurs.
Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved to a civilian who uses his right of self-defense when being attacked. The paper will describe established law and analyze the application of the right to self-defense in case law. Finally, an analyze of the right of self-defense, the way it is regulated in Swedish law will be made.

The right of self-defense is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, whenever a violent criminal attacks occurs. The rule of law is prescribed in the 24 chapter 1 § Brottsbalken, the Swedish criminal code. To be considered legal, the action being used in self-defense must not be considered obviously unjustifiable by a court of law. When making the decision, the court shall take into consideration the nature of the attack, the significance of the attacked object and other circumstances.
The right of the self-defense is an objective, relative rule of law. The fact that the rule is objective, means that it is the actual situation that should be taken into consideration by the court, not the accused’s perception of the situation. The objectivity of the rule also means that if the violence exerted but the attacked person is considered not obviously unjustifiable, it is not considered a criminal action. The relativity of the rule means that the court has to take into consideration the nature of the attack and the significance of the attacked object when deciding whether the violence exerted by the accused is obviously unjustifiable. In Strafflagen, the ancient Swedish criminal code, the right of self-defense was absolute, which means that the court did not have to take those circumstances prescribed in today’s legal rule into consideration; the violence exerted in self-defense was legal as long as it was considered necessary to fend of the attack.

The bill describes the purpose of the right of self-defense. The rule intends to let the attacked person use a certain amount of violence to defend oneself when a violent criminal attack occurs. The fact that the defending party is allowed to use force that is not considered obviously unjustifiable, means that violence considered unjustifiable is legal. The expression obviously unjustifiable intends to grant civilians a wide margin when committing the act of self-defense. However, to investigate whether the right of self-defense is appropriate and correspond with the views described in the bill, the application of the right of self-defense in case law must be studied. In case law, the Swedish Supreme Court tends to consider the exerted violence obviously unjustifiable, even though its necessary to fend of the attack, and thus does not exceed the wide margin that should be approved when repelling an attack. The fact that the right of self-defense is relative means that under certain circumstances, an act that is necessary to fend of the violent criminal attack, is considered obviously unjustifiable, and thus illegal. To guarantee an attacked person the rights of self-defense, it is necessary to investigate the rules considering the right of the self-defense, and possibly change them. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats beskriver nödvärnsrätten såsom den är utformad i svensk rätt. Genom en rättsdogmatisk metod redogörs för lagtext, praxis, förarbeten och doktrin på området, det vill säga de i rättskälleläran utpekade rättskallorna.

Nödvärnsrätten regleras i 24 kap 1 § BrB och utmärks av att någon utsätts för ett brottsligt angrepp och ska avvärja detta, och därmed kommer den handling som företas i nödvärn inte att betraktas som brott. För att nödvärnshandlingen ska bedömas som laglig, måste en av de i lagrummet särskilt angivna situationerna föreligga, och därtill måste nödvärnsagerandet bedömas som ej uppenbart oförsvarligt. Av lagtexten framgår att begreppet uppenbart oförsvarligt ska bedömas med beaktande av angreppets beskaffenhet,... (More)
Denna uppsats beskriver nödvärnsrätten såsom den är utformad i svensk rätt. Genom en rättsdogmatisk metod redogörs för lagtext, praxis, förarbeten och doktrin på området, det vill säga de i rättskälleläran utpekade rättskallorna.

Nödvärnsrätten regleras i 24 kap 1 § BrB och utmärks av att någon utsätts för ett brottsligt angrepp och ska avvärja detta, och därmed kommer den handling som företas i nödvärn inte att betraktas som brott. För att nödvärnshandlingen ska bedömas som laglig, måste en av de i lagrummet särskilt angivna situationerna föreligga, och därtill måste nödvärnsagerandet bedömas som ej uppenbart oförsvarligt. Av lagtexten framgår att begreppet uppenbart oförsvarligt ska bedömas med beaktande av angreppets beskaffenhet, det angripnas betydelse och omständigheterna i övrigt. Att nödvärnshandlingens laglighet ska bedömas med beaktande av ett antal omständigheter, innebär att nödvärnsbestämmelsen, såsom den utformas i BrB, har relativ karaktär. En bedömning av gärningens försvarlighet sker för varje fall. I SL, brottbalkens föregångare, hade nödvärnsrätten absolut karaktär, vilket innebär att ingen bedömning av försvarligheten gjordes, utan gärningen betraktades som laglig så länge den var erforderlig för att avvärja angreppet.

Nödvärnrättens utformning har blivit föremål för debatt, och ett flertal motioner har betonat vikten av att den enskilde har möjligheter att vid ett brottsligt angrepp vidta långtgående åtgärder för att avvärja detta. I förarbetena till lagtexten fastställdes att begreppet uppenbart oförsvarligt skulle bevilja en bred marginal till förmån för den angripne vid utövandet av nödvärnsgärningen. Däremot medför nödvärnsrättens relativa karaktär att en nödvärnshandling som är laglig under vissa omständigheter, kommer att bedömas som uppenbart oförsvarlig i andra fall. För att bedöma hur ändamålsenligt nödvärnsinstitutet är, måste bestämmelsens tillämpning i praxis studeras.

HD tenderar att bedöma det i nödvärn brukade våldet som uppenbart oförsvarligt, trots att detta inte avsevärt överstiger vad som är erforderligt för att avvärja angreppet. Den breda marginal som i förarbetena anges ska tillkomma den angripne, har inte beviljats i praxis i sådan utsträckning som lagstiftaren avsåg. Nödvärnsbestämmelsens relativa karaktär kan medföra att den angripne under vissa omständigheter inte tillåts att bruka så mycket våld som är nödvändigt för att avvärja angreppet, varför det finns anledning att diskutera huruvida nödvärnsrätten borde ha relativ eller absolut karaktär. En absolut nödvärnsrätt beaktar inte på samma sätt som den relativa den proportionalitet som bör föreligga mellan det hotade och det offrade intresset. Avgörande för vilken karaktär bestämmelsen ska ha, borde vara vilket intresse som bedöms förtjäna rättsordningens skydd, eventuellt på bekostnad av ett annat. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Almström, Stina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Right of Self-defence - the Right granted to the Victim of a Violent Criminal Attack
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Nödvärnsrätt, relativ, absolut, den enskilde, brottsligt angrepp, uppenbart oförsvarligt.
language
Swedish
id
2174252
date added to LUP
2011-10-31 13:54:26
date last changed
2011-10-31 13:54:26
@misc{2174252,
  abstract     = {This paper describes the Swedish law regarding the right of self-defense. The right of self-defense is the right for civilians acting on their own behalf to defend themselves when a violent criminal attack occurs.
     Using a legal dogmatic method, it intends to describe the rights and possibilities being approved to a civilian who uses his right of self-defense when being attacked. The paper will describe established law and analyze the application of the right to self-defense in case law. Finally, an analyze of the right of self-defense, the way it is regulated in Swedish law will be made. 

The right of self-defense is being granted to the person being attacked, or anyone else nearby, whenever a violent criminal attacks occurs. The rule of law is prescribed in the 24 chapter 1 § Brottsbalken, the Swedish criminal code. To be considered legal, the action being used in self-defense must not be considered obviously unjustifiable by a court of law. When making the decision, the court shall take into consideration the nature of the attack, the significance of the attacked object and other circumstances. 
     The right of the self-defense is an objective, relative rule of law. The fact that the rule is objective, means that it is the actual situation that should be taken into consideration by the court, not the accused’s perception of the situation. The objectivity of the rule also means that if the violence exerted but the attacked person is considered not obviously unjustifiable, it is not considered a criminal action. The relativity of the rule means that the court has to take into consideration the nature of the attack and the significance of the attacked object when deciding whether the violence exerted by the accused is obviously unjustifiable. In Strafflagen, the ancient Swedish criminal code, the right of self-defense was absolute, which means that the court did not have to take those circumstances prescribed in today’s legal rule into consideration; the violence exerted in self-defense was legal as long as it was considered necessary to fend of the attack. 

The bill describes the purpose of the right of self-defense. The rule intends to let the attacked person use a certain amount of violence to defend oneself when a violent criminal attack occurs. The fact that the defending party is allowed to use force that is not considered obviously unjustifiable, means that violence considered unjustifiable is legal. The expression obviously unjustifiable intends to grant civilians a wide margin when committing the act of self-defense. However, to investigate whether the right of self-defense is appropriate and correspond with the views described in the bill, the application of the right of self-defense in case law must be studied. In case law, the Swedish Supreme Court tends to consider the exerted violence obviously unjustifiable, even though its necessary to fend of the attack, and thus does not exceed the wide margin that should be approved when repelling an attack. The fact that the right of self-defense is relative means that under certain circumstances, an act that is necessary to fend of the violent criminal attack, is considered obviously unjustifiable, and thus illegal. To guarantee an attacked person the rights of self-defense, it is necessary to investigate the rules considering the right of the self-defense, and possibly change them.},
  author       = {Almström, Stina},
  keyword      = {Nödvärnsrätt,relativ,absolut,den enskilde,brottsligt angrepp,uppenbart oförsvarligt.
},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Nödvärn - den enskildes rättigheter vid ett brottsligt angrepp},
  year         = {2011},
}