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Rättssäker myndighetsutövning och förtroendeskadligt beteende

Björn Kaminski, Anna-Kari LU (2011) JURM01 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
”Kan vi inte längre lita på dem som vi gett förtroende och makt urholkas samhällets legitimitet. Att bekämpa korruption handlar därför ytterst om att slå vakt om det demokratiska samhället.”

Rättssäker myndighetsutövning, förtroendeskadligt beteende samt korruption är nyckelord i uppsatsen. Sverige bedöms i flera undersökningar som ett land utan större problem med korruption och att företeelsen inte anses ha fått något starkare fäste förklaras på olika sätt. Omständigheter som motverkar korruption anses vara allt från traditioner, välfungerande rättsliga, administrativa och politiska system till offentlighetsprincipen och medborgare som inte accepterar korruption. Korruptionsuttrycket innefattar juridiskt i Sverige endast muta och... (More)
”Kan vi inte längre lita på dem som vi gett förtroende och makt urholkas samhällets legitimitet. Att bekämpa korruption handlar därför ytterst om att slå vakt om det demokratiska samhället.”

Rättssäker myndighetsutövning, förtroendeskadligt beteende samt korruption är nyckelord i uppsatsen. Sverige bedöms i flera undersökningar som ett land utan större problem med korruption och att företeelsen inte anses ha fått något starkare fäste förklaras på olika sätt. Omständigheter som motverkar korruption anses vara allt från traditioner, välfungerande rättsliga, administrativa och politiska system till offentlighetsprincipen och medborgare som inte accepterar korruption. Korruptionsuttrycket innefattar juridiskt i Sverige endast muta och bestickning, själva formuleringen finns dock inte i lagtexterna. Det finns däremot troligen skäl att utvidga begreppet. Utomlands ges det ofta en betydligt mera vidsträckt betydelse. Korruptionsbekämpning i samhället handlar inte bara om att utreda begångna brott, utan liksom vid annan brottslighet om att avvärja nya brott genom förebyggande åtgärder. I det förebyggande arbetet ingår bland annat en bedömning av hur riskutsatt verksamheten är, något som flera myndigheter kritiseras för att inte ha genomfört på ett tillfredsställande sätt. Från mitten av 1990-talet och framåt har det skett en utveckling av synsättet både av vad som betecknas som korruption och hur denna kan förebyggas. Korruptionsforskningen idag handlar också om hur bisysslor, vänskapsrelationer och andra förbindelser och förpliktelser kan påverka hur en tjänsteman agerar i sin myndighetsutövning. Korruptionsdefinitionen utgår ofta från ekonomisk vinning, men inte sällan är det andra mål som eftersträvas. Det kan ytterst förekomma situationer där det enligt Lundquist är ”mycket troligare att ämbetsmännen låter sig styras av sina fördomar, ideologier och begränsade perspektiv än av utsikten att göra ekonomiska vinster” Även om skyddsintresset skiljer sig åt mellan privat och offentlig sektor är lagstiftningen till stor del gemensam för båda grupperna. Frågor som förs fram är vilken lagstiftning som finns för att skydda det offentliga uppdragets integritet, hur lagstiftaren har resonerat och om lagen är effektiv och fyller sin funktion. Jämsides med detta är det lämpligt att studera vilka omständigheter som ger det offentliga uppdraget speciell status, vilka faktorer som påverkar dess oberoende och hur korruption ska definieras. (Less)
Abstract
“When we can no longer rely on those in whom we have placed our trust and have empowered, the legitimacy of society is undermined. Therefore, the fight against corruption is, to a high degree, a safeguard of democratic society”

Authorities who follow the law in their actions and those whose behaviour damages trust are two opposite poles of great importance. In several studies, Sweden is graded as a country that does not have significant problems with corruption. That corruption has not established itself to a greater extent has been attributed to various factors. Mechanisms that counteract corruption are considered to be found in Swedish traditions and include well functioning judicial, administrative and political systems, the... (More)
“When we can no longer rely on those in whom we have placed our trust and have empowered, the legitimacy of society is undermined. Therefore, the fight against corruption is, to a high degree, a safeguard of democratic society”

Authorities who follow the law in their actions and those whose behaviour damages trust are two opposite poles of great importance. In several studies, Sweden is graded as a country that does not have significant problems with corruption. That corruption has not established itself to a greater extent has been attributed to various factors. Mechanisms that counteract corruption are considered to be found in Swedish traditions and include well functioning judicial, administrative and political systems, the principle of public access to official documents and a citizenry who does not accept corruption. In strictly legal terms in Swedish legislation, corruption only consists of bribing, even if these activities are not directly specified in the legal texts. Notwithstanding, there is some argument for a wider legal framework in this area, as is the situation in some foreign jurisdictions. The fight against corruption in society is not only a process of solving wrongs already committed, but as is the case with other crimes, is also a process of preventing new delinquency. In this regard, satisfactory risk assessment, among other things, is part of an effective anti-corruption strategy, the lack of which has resulted in criticism of several state authorities. From the mid 1990´s the view of what can be described as corruption and how it may be prevented has evolved. Research into corruption today has widened to include nepotism, aspects of spare time work and other relations and responsibilities that can affect the proper conduct of a state employee. It is often assumed that economic gain is a necessary condition for the definition of corruption, but other motives can apply. Situations can arise where according to Lundquist, “state officials are much more likely to be driven by their prejudice, ideologies and limited perspective than by the expectation of financial gain” Even though protection requirements differ between the private and public sector, the relevant laws are to a great extent the same for both groups. Which “legislation exists to protect the integrity of the public mandate”, “how has the legislature reasoned in creating law” and “are laws effective and fit for purpose”, are questions that come in mind. Accordingly it is appropriate to research the characteristics that are special to the public sector, the factors that can compromise areas of independence that should be protected and the question of how corruption should be defined. (Less)
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author
Björn Kaminski, Anna-Kari LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Mechanisms against Conflict of Interests in the Swedish Public Sector
course
JURM01 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
language
Swedish
id
2278369
date added to LUP
2012-02-15 09:19:45
date last changed
2012-02-15 09:19:45
@misc{2278369,
  abstract     = {“When we can no longer rely on those in whom we have placed our trust and have empowered, the legitimacy of society is undermined. Therefore, the fight against corruption is, to a high degree, a safeguard of democratic society” 

Authorities who follow the law in their actions and those whose behaviour damages trust are two opposite poles of great importance. In several studies, Sweden is graded as a country that does not have significant problems with corruption. That corruption has not established itself to a greater extent has been attributed to various factors. Mechanisms that counteract corruption are considered to be found in Swedish traditions and include well functioning judicial, administrative and political systems, the principle of public access to official documents and a citizenry who does not accept corruption. In strictly legal terms in Swedish legislation, corruption only consists of bribing, even if these activities are not directly specified in the legal texts. Notwithstanding, there is some argument for a wider legal framework in this area, as is the situation in some foreign jurisdictions. The fight against corruption in society is not only a process of solving wrongs already committed, but as is the case with other crimes, is also a process of preventing new delinquency. In this regard, satisfactory risk assessment, among other things, is part of an effective anti-corruption strategy, the lack of which has resulted in criticism of several state authorities. From the mid 1990´s the view of what can be described as corruption and how it may be prevented has evolved. Research into corruption today has widened to include nepotism, aspects of spare time work and other relations and responsibilities that can affect the proper conduct of a state employee. It is often assumed that economic gain is a necessary condition for the definition of corruption, but other motives can apply. Situations can arise where according to Lundquist, “state officials are much more likely to be driven by their prejudice, ideologies and limited perspective than by the expectation of financial gain”  Even though protection requirements differ between the private and public sector, the relevant laws are to a great extent the same for both groups. Which “legislation exists to protect the integrity of the public mandate”, “how has the legislature reasoned in creating law” and “are laws effective and fit for purpose”, are questions that come in mind. Accordingly it is appropriate to research the characteristics that are special to the public sector, the factors that can compromise areas of independence that should be protected and the question of how corruption should be defined.},
  author       = {Björn Kaminski, Anna-Kari},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rättssäker myndighetsutövning och förtroendeskadligt beteende},
  year         = {2011},
}