Advanced

The Contemporary Law of Targeting and Sweden’s Compliance Training

Zieme, Marcus LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den rättsliga regleringen av targeting är en begränsning av våldstillämpningen. Den regleras i både nationell rätt och internationell sedvanerätt och är tillämplig i både internationella och icke-internationella väpnade konflikter. Denna uppsats är främst inriktad på definitionen av den rättsliga regleringen av targeting och den problematiska tillämpningen av dual-use objects och direct participation in hostilities. Trots att den rättsliga regleringen av targeting må vara, åtminstone på ytan enkel, finns många oklarheter, främst vad gäller definitionen i Artikel 52(2) AP I. En bred tolkning av denna artikel i kombination med en Effect Based Aproach leder till en ökad kategorisering och integration av civilia mål. Denna tolkning, vilket USA... (More)
Den rättsliga regleringen av targeting är en begränsning av våldstillämpningen. Den regleras i både nationell rätt och internationell sedvanerätt och är tillämplig i både internationella och icke-internationella väpnade konflikter. Denna uppsats är främst inriktad på definitionen av den rättsliga regleringen av targeting och den problematiska tillämpningen av dual-use objects och direct participation in hostilities. Trots att den rättsliga regleringen av targeting må vara, åtminstone på ytan enkel, finns många oklarheter, främst vad gäller definitionen i Artikel 52(2) AP I. En bred tolkning av denna artikel i kombination med en Effect Based Aproach leder till en ökad kategorisering och integration av civilia mål. Denna tolkning, vilket USA och NATO främjar, genomsyrar den samtida rättsliga regleringen av targeting och utmanar den praktiska tillämpningen av distinktionsprincipen.
Den centrala frågan är om Sveriges försvarsmakt i deras utbildning stödjer eller utbildar i enlighet med USA eller NATO definitionen. Genom en observation på VIKING 11 vilket är en civil-militär övning som utspelar sig i ett fiktivt land som speglar dagens samtida väpnade konflikter med inslag av historiska, politiska, socio-ekonomiska, militära och humanitära faktorer i en söndersplittrad stat och genom en granskning av Joint Allied Forces 3.9 Doctrine konstateras jag att restriktivare tillämpning av targeting inte utgör några juridiska problem så länge internationella rättsprinciper är uppfyllda.
Men från en normskapande aspekt finns det vissa farhågor med att träna i en miljö som skiljer sig från det svenska synsättet. För det första kan det vara problematiskt att försvarsmakten övar i en miljö som definiera target och targeting brett. För det andra, även om Sverige uppfyller många krav på regelefterlevnad av den internationella humanitära rätten, kan det vara problematiskt när man i övningsförfarandet av targeting processen inte tar hänsyn till skydd av civila objekt. (Less)
Abstract
The law of targeting is a limitation of the use of force and is regulated both in conventional and customary international law, applicable in International Armed Conflict and Non-International Armed Conflict. Targeting issues are related to the principle of distinction and the application of military objective. This thesis is mainly focused on the law of targeting and the problematic application of dual-use objects and direct participation in hostilities. Although the law of targeting is, on its face simple, there are some ambiguities, mainly regarding the definition of Article 52(2) of Protocol of 8 June 1977 Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Concerning the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts... (More)
The law of targeting is a limitation of the use of force and is regulated both in conventional and customary international law, applicable in International Armed Conflict and Non-International Armed Conflict. Targeting issues are related to the principle of distinction and the application of military objective. This thesis is mainly focused on the law of targeting and the problematic application of dual-use objects and direct participation in hostilities. Although the law of targeting is, on its face simple, there are some ambiguities, mainly regarding the definition of Article 52(2) of Protocol of 8 June 1977 Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Concerning the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (AP I). A broad interpretation of this article combined with an Effect Based Approach leads to the categorization and integration of more and more civilian objects into the target lists. This interpretation, enforced by US and NATO, permeates the contemporary law of targeting and challenge the key notion of distinction. The key question is if the Swedish Armed Forces in their training comply or otherwise enforce this definition. From an observation of VIKING which is a civil-military joint training exercise conducted in a fictional country which reflect today’s contemporary armed conflict with elements of historical, political, socio-economic, military and humanitarian factors in a failed state, and from researching the Allied Forces Joint Doctrines, I conclude that the legal implication of a Swedish interpretation of the relevant international law does not impose any problems. However, from a normative view there are some concerns. Firstly, there are some concerns that the Swedish Armed Forces train in an environment that define targets and targeting very broadly. Secondly, the Swedish compliance of IHL is in many regards well complied but there are some concerns regarding the implementation of protection of civilian objects within the training exercise (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Zieme, Marcus LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
international law, international humanitarian law, targeting
language
English
id
2278419
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 14:35:31
date last changed
2012-02-16 14:35:31
@misc{2278419,
  abstract     = {The law of targeting is a limitation of the use of force and is regulated both in conventional and customary international law, applicable in International Armed Conflict and Non-International Armed Conflict. Targeting issues are related to the principle of distinction and the application of military objective. This thesis is mainly focused on the law of targeting and the problematic application of dual-use objects and direct participation in hostilities. Although the law of targeting is, on its face simple, there are some ambiguities, mainly regarding the definition of Article 52(2) of Protocol of 8 June 1977 Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Concerning the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (AP I). A broad interpretation of this article combined with an Effect Based Approach leads to the categorization and integration of more and more civilian objects into the target lists. This interpretation, enforced by US and NATO, permeates the contemporary law of targeting and challenge the key notion of distinction. The key question is if the Swedish Armed Forces in their training comply or otherwise enforce this definition. From an observation of VIKING which is a civil-military joint training exercise conducted in a fictional country which reflect today’s contemporary armed conflict with elements of historical, political, socio-economic, military and humanitarian factors in a failed state, and from researching the Allied Forces Joint Doctrines, I conclude that the legal implication of a Swedish interpretation of the relevant international law does not impose any problems. However, from a normative view there are some concerns. Firstly, there are some concerns that the Swedish Armed Forces train in an environment that define targets and targeting very broadly. Secondly, the Swedish compliance of IHL is in many regards well complied but there are some concerns regarding the implementation of protection of civilian objects within the training exercise},
  author       = {Zieme, Marcus},
  keyword      = {international law,international humanitarian law,targeting},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The Contemporary Law of Targeting and Sweden’s Compliance Training},
  year         = {2011},
}