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Penningtvätt - Definitionsproblem för bankerna

Nilsson, Hanna LU (2011) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract
Money laundering has for a long time been an acknowledged problem, now more than ever. Especially after 9/11 2001 and the terrorist attacks in the USA, joint efforts have made combating the problem a serious matter. Combating and prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing is also important from a larger perspective. If you can close off finances of criminal activity, you are one step closer to also stop organized crime, since money laundering often works as a final step of organized crime.

Today our Swedish banks have a big responsibility to discover and report to the financial police if suspicion of money laundering rises. Naturally, this require a great deal of resources and a substantial amount of work. Still... (More)
Money laundering has for a long time been an acknowledged problem, now more than ever. Especially after 9/11 2001 and the terrorist attacks in the USA, joint efforts have made combating the problem a serious matter. Combating and prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing is also important from a larger perspective. If you can close off finances of criminal activity, you are one step closer to also stop organized crime, since money laundering often works as a final step of organized crime.

Today our Swedish banks have a big responsibility to discover and report to the financial police if suspicion of money laundering rises. Naturally, this require a great deal of resources and a substantial amount of work. Still investigations and reports show that only just under half of all banks within Sweden reported sometime during the year of 2009. There are a number of reasons for that. According to Brottsförebyggande rådet(Brå) banks acquire both inadequate knowledge and inadequate technical development. People who are involved with money laundering are always one step ahead of those who try to discover them. If one method of money laundering is discovered, another is invented. Knowledge and technical systems at the banks are therefore of great importance, since they are the ones to have contact with clients and money.

In a report from Brå one of the reasons for the low number of reports, is said to be the complexity of the regulations and that the employees at the banks lack in knowledge when it comes to what the regulation concerning money laundering mean. Initially money laundering was meant to only cover when money was being laundered, but this area has with time been extended. Today the regulation also covers when white money is being stained to disguise the receiver of the money. This is often used when terrorism is being financed. Therefore, Brå gives as a proposal that the name money laundering should be changed into money removal or money movement, since this in a better way reflects what actually happens, which makes it easier for those who are supposed to carry out the rules.

This thesis deals with the problems of definition that money laundering causes and the actions that has been suggested. The suggestion of most interest to this thesis is if the name of money laundering should be changed into money removal or money movement and the consequences of such an action. The purpose of this thesis is also to get an insight in the actions banks take to avoid money laundering. This is made to be able to see if there is a need for a change from their perspective. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Penningtvätt har länge varit ett uppmärksammat problem, men inte förrän på senare år, särskilt efter den 11 september 2001 och terroristattackerna i USA har stora krafttag gjort att bekämpningen av problemet kommit igång. Bekämpningen och förhindrandet av penningtvätt och finansiering av terrorism är även viktigt utifrån ett större perspektiv. Om man kan strypa finanserna för kriminell verksamhet, är man ett steg närmare att även stoppa den organiserade brottsligheten, eftersom penningtvätt ofta fungerar som ett slutled i den organiserade brottsligheten.

Våra svenska banker har idag ett stort ansvar att upptäcka och rapportera till Finanspolisen om misstanke om penningtvätt uppstår. Detta kräver naturligtvis stora resurser och ett... (More)
Penningtvätt har länge varit ett uppmärksammat problem, men inte förrän på senare år, särskilt efter den 11 september 2001 och terroristattackerna i USA har stora krafttag gjort att bekämpningen av problemet kommit igång. Bekämpningen och förhindrandet av penningtvätt och finansiering av terrorism är även viktigt utifrån ett större perspektiv. Om man kan strypa finanserna för kriminell verksamhet, är man ett steg närmare att även stoppa den organiserade brottsligheten, eftersom penningtvätt ofta fungerar som ett slutled i den organiserade brottsligheten.

Våra svenska banker har idag ett stort ansvar att upptäcka och rapportera till Finanspolisen om misstanke om penningtvätt uppstår. Detta kräver naturligtvis stora resurser och ett omfattande arbete. Ändå visar undersökningar och rapporter på att det trots detta varje år bara sker rapporteringar om penningtvätt från ca hälften av alla de banker som finns inom Sveriges gränser. Vad detta beror på finns det flera förklaringar till. Bl.a. finns det enligt Brottsförebyggande rådet(Brå) brister hos bankerna vad gäller både kunskap och teknisk utveckling. De personer som ägnar sig åt penningtvätt ligger hela tiden steget före de som försöker upptäcka dem. Upptäcks en metod för penningtvätt, kommer "penningtvättarna" på en ny. Kunskap och teknik hos bankerna är därför av stor vikt, eftersom det är de som har kontakten med kunderna och pengarna.

I en rapport från Brå anges att en av anledningarna till den låga rapporteringen är den snåriga regleringen kring penningtvätt och att bankernas anställda brister i kunskap vad gäller detta begrepp. Begreppet penningtvätt var från början bara tänkt att omfatta just att " tvätta pengar", men har med tiden utvidgats. I dag omfattas även när man smutsar ner vita pengar för att dölja pengarnas mottagare, vilket är vanligt vid terrorismfinansiering. Som förslag ger därför Brå att ändra benämningen från penningtvätt till penningförflyttning, eftersom detta begrepp på ett bättre sätt speglar vad som faktiskt sker, vilket skulle underlätta för de som ska tillämpa reglerna.

Denna uppsats behandlar de definitionsproblem som finns med begreppet penningtvätt och de åtgärder som just nu ligger som förslag. Det förslag som är av störst intresse är om vi bör införa benämningen penningförflyttning och vilka konsekvenser detta skulle medföra. Syftet med uppsatsen är även att få en inblick i bankernas arbete mot penningtvätt, för att se var bristerna finns. Detta för att försöka utröna om det finns ett behov till en ändring, ur deras perspektiv. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nilsson, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Money laundering - Problems with definition
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Penningtvätt, straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
2292148
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 14:45:13
date last changed
2012-02-16 14:45:13
@misc{2292148,
  abstract     = {Money laundering has for a long time been an acknowledged problem, now more than ever. Especially after 9/11 2001 and the terrorist attacks in the USA, joint efforts have made combating the problem a serious matter. Combating and prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing is also important from a larger perspective. If you can close off finances of criminal activity, you are one step closer to also stop organized crime, since money laundering often works as a final step of organized crime.

Today our Swedish banks have a big responsibility to discover and report to the financial police if suspicion of money laundering rises. Naturally, this require a great deal of resources and a substantial amount of work. Still investigations and reports show that only just under half of all banks within Sweden reported sometime during the year of 2009. There are a number of reasons for that. According to Brottsförebyggande rådet(Brå) banks acquire both inadequate knowledge and inadequate technical development. People who are involved with money laundering are always one step ahead of those who try to discover them. If one method of money laundering is discovered, another is invented. Knowledge and technical systems at the banks are therefore of great importance, since they are the ones to have contact with clients and money.

In a report from Brå one of the reasons for the low number of reports, is said to be the complexity of the regulations and that the employees at the banks lack in knowledge when it comes to what the regulation concerning money laundering mean. Initially money laundering was meant to only cover when money was being laundered, but this area has with time been extended. Today the regulation also covers when white money is being stained to disguise the receiver of the money. This is often used when terrorism is being financed. Therefore, Brå gives as a proposal that the name money laundering should be changed into money removal or money movement, since this in a better way reflects what actually happens, which makes it easier for those who are supposed to carry out the rules. 

This thesis deals with the problems of definition that money laundering causes and the actions that has been suggested. The suggestion of most interest to this thesis is if the name of money laundering should be changed into money removal or money movement and the consequences of such an action. The purpose of this thesis is also to get an insight in the actions banks take to avoid money laundering. This is made to be able to see if there is a need for a change from their perspective.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Hanna},
  keyword      = {Penningtvätt,straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Penningtvätt - Definitionsproblem för bankerna},
  year         = {2011},
}