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Befallningsrätten - Om polismans rätt att meddela befallningar och tillsägelser m.m.

Ranestål, Bruno LU (2012) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Polisman har enligt svensk rätt befogenhet att under olika omständigheter meddela tillsägelser och andra liknande direktiv till allmänheten. Den närmare innebörden av denna befogenhet – den så kallade befallningsrätten – beskrivs emellertid ofta som oklar och ämnet har aldrig varit föremål för en sammanhållen och genomgripande akademisk behandling.
I föreliggande uppsats utforskas innehållet i och gränserna för den polisiära befallningsrätten. Därvid identifieras ett större antal rättsregler av varierande slag, vilka utgör olika uttryck för polismans befogenhet att meddela befallningar och vidta andra närliggande åtgärder. De identifierade rättsreglerna analyseras och systematiseras i syfte att skapa en översikt av... (More)
Polisman har enligt svensk rätt befogenhet att under olika omständigheter meddela tillsägelser och andra liknande direktiv till allmänheten. Den närmare innebörden av denna befogenhet – den så kallade befallningsrätten – beskrivs emellertid ofta som oklar och ämnet har aldrig varit föremål för en sammanhållen och genomgripande akademisk behandling.
I föreliggande uppsats utforskas innehållet i och gränserna för den polisiära befallningsrätten. Därvid identifieras ett större antal rättsregler av varierande slag, vilka utgör olika uttryck för polismans befogenhet att meddela befallningar och vidta andra närliggande åtgärder. De identifierade rättsreglerna analyseras och systematiseras i syfte att skapa en översikt av befallningsbefogenheten.
Regelverket präglas av en diversifierad och emellanåt vag utformning, vilket ger upphov till olika problem och frågeställningar. Dessa behandlas fortlöpande i analysen. Bland annat problematiseras hur tolkningsprincipen om specialreglers inskränkande verkan på allmänna reglers tillämplighet kan appliceras på de aktuella bestämmelserna. Vidare behandlas frågan hur långt det med beaktande av legalitetsprincipen är möjligt att gå vid framtolkandet av offentligrättsliga befogenheter ur otydliga rättsregler.
Utifrån redogörelsen för gällande rätt diskuteras om de aktuella bestämmelserna bildar en lämplig och väl avvägd befogenhetsreglering eller om befallningsrättens utformning i något hänseende bör revideras. Slutsatsen är att befallningsrättens omfattning huvudsakligen motsvarar de polispraktiska kraven på ett tillfredsställande sätt, men att förekomsten av befogenheten borde framgå tydligare i vissa rättsregler. Ur ett rättsstatsperspektiv är bruket att i vissa fall utröna befallningsreglernas närmare innehåll utifrån vad som gäller enligt sedvana särskilt problematiskt.
Slutsatsen är därför att förekomsten av en polisiär befallningsrätt bör tillåtas komma till tydligare uttryck i författningstext. Detta skulle stärka den enskildes rättsskydd och därtill främja effektiviteten i polisarbetet. Lagändringar bör emellertid ske med beaktande av farorna i en överdriven detaljreglering. En sådan riskerar att bli en hämmande tvångströja i polismans myndighetsutövning som på det aktuella området präglas av ett stort behov av flexibilitet. (Less)
Abstract
According to Swedish law a police officer has the authority under certain circumstances to issue commands and similar directions to the public. The extent of this power – the so called command authority (befallningsrätten) – is however often described as ambiguous and the area has never been the subject of a cohesive and pervasive academic study.
In the present essay the contents and boundaries of the police command authority have been explored. In the process a great number of legal rules of varying kinds have been identified which constitutes different expressions of a police officer’s authority to issue commands and to take similar actions. The identified legal rules have been analyzed and systematized in an effort to create an outline... (More)
According to Swedish law a police officer has the authority under certain circumstances to issue commands and similar directions to the public. The extent of this power – the so called command authority (befallningsrätten) – is however often described as ambiguous and the area has never been the subject of a cohesive and pervasive academic study.
In the present essay the contents and boundaries of the police command authority have been explored. In the process a great number of legal rules of varying kinds have been identified which constitutes different expressions of a police officer’s authority to issue commands and to take similar actions. The identified legal rules have been analyzed and systematized in an effort to create an outline of the command authority.
The set of rules is characterized by its diversified and occasionally vague design which gives rise to different problems and issues. These have continuously been considered in the analysis. Among other things the application of the interpretational doctrine of lex specialis derogat legi generali has been discussed in relation to the present rules. Furthermore the issue has been treated whether extensive interpretation of ambiguous legal rules that constitute judicial powers in the exercise of public authority can be allowed with consideration of the principle of legality.
On basis of the account of current law it has further been considered whether the operative legal rules constitute an appropriate and balanced legislation or if the set of rules in some part should be revised. The conclusion has been that the extent of the command authority chiefly corresponds to the practical needs in police exercise of duties, but that the existence of the authority should be more clearly articulated in some legal rules. From a rule of law standpoint (rättsstatsperspektiv) it is particularly problematic that the command authority’s contents in some cases are determined from what previously has been customary within the area.
The conclusion therefore is that the existence of a police command authority should be more clearly articulated in the legal statutes (författningstext). This would serve to reinforce the protective aspects of the law as well as the effectiveness in the exercise of police authority. Amendments to the law should however be made with awareness of the dangers incorporated in an overly detailed set of rules. Such a system could become a straitjacket in the police officer’s execution of his or her duties, which is characterized by a high demand on flexibility within the current area. (Less)
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author
Ranestål, Bruno LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Command Authority - Regarding Police Officer’s Authority to Issue Commands
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
befallningsrätt, befallningsrätten, polisens befogenheter, polismans befogenhet, befogenhetsreglering, polisrätt, politirätt, offentlig rätt, förvaltningsrätt
language
Swedish
id
2341806
date added to LUP
2012-03-14 09:53:08
date last changed
2012-03-14 09:53:08
@misc{2341806,
  abstract     = {According to Swedish law a police officer has the authority under certain circumstances to issue commands and similar directions to the public. The extent of this power – the so called command authority (befallningsrätten) – is however often described as ambiguous and the area has never been the subject of a cohesive and pervasive academic study.
In the present essay the contents and boundaries of the police command authority have been explored. In the process a great number of legal rules of varying kinds have been identified which constitutes different expressions of a police officer’s authority to issue commands and to take similar actions. The identified legal rules have been analyzed and systematized in an effort to create an outline of the command authority.
The set of rules is characterized by its diversified and occasionally vague design which gives rise to different problems and issues. These have continuously been considered in the analysis. Among other things the application of the interpretational doctrine of lex specialis derogat legi generali has been discussed in relation to the present rules. Furthermore the issue has been treated whether extensive interpretation of ambiguous legal rules that constitute judicial powers in the exercise of public authority can be allowed with consideration of the principle of legality.
On basis of the account of current law it has further been considered whether the operative legal rules constitute an appropriate and balanced legislation or if the set of rules in some part should be revised. The conclusion has been that the extent of the command authority chiefly corresponds to the practical needs in police exercise of duties, but that the existence of the authority should be more clearly articulated in some legal rules. From a rule of law standpoint (rättsstatsperspektiv) it is particularly problematic that the command authority’s contents in some cases are determined from what previously has been customary within the area.
The conclusion therefore is that the existence of a police command authority should be more clearly articulated in the legal statutes (författningstext). This would serve to reinforce the protective aspects of the law as well as the effectiveness in the exercise of police authority. Amendments to the law should however be made with awareness of the dangers incorporated in an overly detailed set of rules. Such a system could become a straitjacket in the police officer’s execution of his or her duties, which is characterized by a high demand on flexibility within the current area.},
  author       = {Ranestål, Bruno},
  keyword      = {befallningsrätt,befallningsrätten,polisens befogenheter,polismans befogenhet,befogenhetsreglering,polisrätt,politirätt,offentlig rätt,förvaltningsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Befallningsrätten - Om polismans rätt att meddela befallningar och tillsägelser m.m.},
  year         = {2012},
}