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Ett ifrågasättande av likadelningsprincpen - Särskilt med beaktande av skadestånd och brottsskadeersättningar mellan makar

Eriksson, Sofie LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I och med införande av 1920 års giftorättsbalk gavs mannen och hustrun en mer likvärdig ställning i äktenskapet då mannens dominans över kvinnan och boets ekonomiska delar bröts. Principen om att var och en av makarna äger sin egendom och svarar för sina skulder infördes och giftorätten kunde likställas med en latent rätt till del av den andra makes egendom. Synen på äktenskapet förändrades under 1900-talet och år 1969 tillsattes en kommitté, familjelagssakkunniga, som skulle se över den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen i sin helhet. Kommitténs arbete medförde stora revideringar av den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen vilket resulterade i äktenskapsbalkens ikraftträdande år 1988. Äktenskapsbalken strävade efter en större jämställdhet mellan... (More)
I och med införande av 1920 års giftorättsbalk gavs mannen och hustrun en mer likvärdig ställning i äktenskapet då mannens dominans över kvinnan och boets ekonomiska delar bröts. Principen om att var och en av makarna äger sin egendom och svarar för sina skulder infördes och giftorätten kunde likställas med en latent rätt till del av den andra makes egendom. Synen på äktenskapet förändrades under 1900-talet och år 1969 tillsattes en kommitté, familjelagssakkunniga, som skulle se över den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen i sin helhet. Kommitténs arbete medförde stora revideringar av den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen vilket resulterade i äktenskapsbalkens ikraftträdande år 1988. Äktenskapsbalken strävade efter en större jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män och balken värnade om en självständighet mellan makarna. I äktenskapsbalken bevarades även de grundläggande familjerättsliga principerna som att vardera make äger sin egendom och svarar för sina skulder samt likadelningsprincipen.
Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda hur likadelningsprincipen förhåller sig till dagens bodelningsregler och den nuvarande, förändrade, synen på äktenskapet. I uppsatsen granskas även huruvida likadelningsprincipens starka fäste är berättigat. Detta genom att granska principen i förhållande till andra familjerättsliga regleringar och speciellt till de nya paragrafer rörande skadestånd som infördes i äktenskapsbalken år 2007.
I äktenskapsbalken finns regler, bl.a. skevdelningsregeln och vederlagsregeln, som syftar till att korrigera orimliga eller olämpliga resultat som bodelningsförfarandet, speciellt likadelningsprincipen kan ge upphov till. Det konstaterades dock att detta ej uppnåddes i alla situationer. År 2004 påbörjades en utredning för att komma till rätta med vissa otillfredsställande bodelningsresultat. Denna utredning syftade framförallt till att utreda två situationer; då make uppburit skadestånd eller brottsskadeersättning eller när make ådragit sig skuld avseende skadestånd. Denna utredning fastställde att bodelningsförfarandet i vissa hänseenden kan medföra otillfredsställande resultat, varvid en ändring av dåvarande regler tedde sig nödvändigt.
Utredningen ledde fram till en lagändring som trädde i kraft den 1 juli 2007. Genom lagändringen infördes två nya paragrafer i äktenskapsbalken vilka innebar att make kunde undanta ersättningar som utgått för personskada eller kränkning från bodelningen. Vidare innebar ändringen att make har möjlighet att kompenseras om den andra maken genom skuld som uppkommit p.g.a. brott minskat sitt giftorättsgods. Denna lagändring kan förmodligen anses vara en början och läggas som grund för framtida behov av kommande reformeringar. (Less)
Abstract
The introduction of the 1920 Marriage Code created a more equal marriage, as the husband’s dominance over the wife and their shared marital estate was dissolved. A new principle was created to replace the old system. This entailed each of the spouses to own their own property and to be responsible for their own debts. The new systems main principal was that the property between husband and wife should be divided equally amongst themselves. The view on marriage changed during the 20th century and in 1969 a legal committee was appointed to revise the area of family law as a whole. The results of the committee’s work changed the area of family law greatly, resulting in the Marriage Code of 1988. The Code aspired to create more equality... (More)
The introduction of the 1920 Marriage Code created a more equal marriage, as the husband’s dominance over the wife and their shared marital estate was dissolved. A new principle was created to replace the old system. This entailed each of the spouses to own their own property and to be responsible for their own debts. The new systems main principal was that the property between husband and wife should be divided equally amongst themselves. The view on marriage changed during the 20th century and in 1969 a legal committee was appointed to revise the area of family law as a whole. The results of the committee’s work changed the area of family law greatly, resulting in the Marriage Code of 1988. The Code aspired to create more equality between men and women and the new law sought to safeguard the independence of the spouses. However, the new legislation retained the basic principles of family law introduced by the 1920’s Code in combination with the principle of equality on division – resulting in that the marital estate, in the case of a divorce, as a main principle should be divided equally.
The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the principal of equal division stands in accordance with the present rules concerning the material estate and the changed view of marriage. I will also seek to examine if the strong position given to the principle of equal division is justified. This will be achieved by analysing the principle’s position in respect to other family law regulations and especially the one regarding compensation, introduced to the Marriage Code in 2007.
The rule in the Marriage Act concerning adjustments on the division of marital estate in favour of the spouse with the largest share aims to correct excessive or improper performance of estate distribution process. The equal sharing principle can, especially, give rise to this. Another rule that is meant to prevent improper results from occurring is the rule which secures the spouse’s right to his/her part of the marital property. The rule is applicable even if the property has been given away shortly before the divorce. In 2004 an investigation was constructed to come to terms with these unsuitable results stemming from the division of the estate.
The investigation was first and foremost created to investigate two different scenarios; one in which one of the spouses received a tort claim or received money from crime victim compensation, and another in which one of the spouses had a debt because of a claim for crimes. It was determined, after the investigation, that the division of the martial property could sometimes conclude in results that were unwanted. Therefore a revision of the existing regulations was deemed necessary.
The inquiries lead to the revision that came into force on the 1st of July 2007. Through the revision, two new sections were introduced in the Marital Code. These sections allowed a spouse to exempt any compensation received from a claim of personal injury or insult. As of the new regulation, a spouse is now entitled to put aside the money he or she gets from, for example, an injury or from being the victim of a violation. In addition to this, the regulation states that a spouse is to be solely held responsible for a debt caused by his or her criminal actions, without affecting the other spouse’s share of the marital property. This revision is most likely the starting point for any potentially future needs for revisions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Eriksson, Sofie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A challenge of the equal sharing principle - Especially with regard to tort and crime victim compensation between spouses
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, likadelningsprincipen, bodelningsförfarande, bodelning, brottsskadeersättning, skadestånd
language
Swedish
id
2682418
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 09:52:40
date last changed
2012-10-15 09:52:40
@misc{2682418,
  abstract     = {The introduction of the 1920 Marriage Code created a more equal marriage, as the husband’s dominance over the wife and their shared marital estate was dissolved. A new principle was created to replace the old system. This entailed each of the spouses to own their own property and to be responsible for their own debts. The new systems main principal was that the property between husband and wife should be divided equally amongst themselves. The view on marriage changed during the 20th century and in 1969 a legal committee was appointed to revise the area of family law as a whole. The results of the committee’s work changed the area of family law greatly, resulting in the Marriage Code of 1988. The Code aspired to create more equality between men and women and the new law sought to safeguard the independence of the spouses. However, the new legislation retained the basic principles of family law introduced by the 1920’s Code in combination with the principle of equality on division – resulting in that the marital estate, in the case of a divorce, as a main principle should be divided equally.
The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the principal of equal division stands in accordance with the present rules concerning the material estate and the changed view of marriage. I will also seek to examine if the strong position given to the principle of equal division is justified. This will be achieved by analysing the principle’s position in respect to other family law regulations and especially the one regarding compensation, introduced to the Marriage Code in 2007.
The rule in the Marriage Act concerning adjustments on the division of marital estate in favour of the spouse with the largest share aims to correct excessive or improper performance of estate distribution process. The equal sharing principle can, especially, give rise to this. Another rule that is meant to prevent improper results from occurring is the rule which secures the spouse’s right to his/her part of the marital property. The rule is applicable even if the property has been given away shortly before the divorce. In 2004 an investigation was constructed to come to terms with these unsuitable results stemming from the division of the estate.
The investigation was first and foremost created to investigate two different scenarios; one in which one of the spouses received a tort claim or received money from crime victim compensation, and another in which one of the spouses had a debt because of a claim for crimes. It was determined, after the investigation, that the division of the martial property could sometimes conclude in results that were unwanted. Therefore a revision of the existing regulations was deemed necessary.
The inquiries lead to the revision that came into force on the 1st of July 2007. Through the revision, two new sections were introduced in the Marital Code. These sections allowed a spouse to exempt any compensation received from a claim of personal injury or insult. As of the new regulation, a spouse is now entitled to put aside the money he or she gets from, for example, an injury or from being the victim of a violation. In addition to this, the regulation states that a spouse is to be solely held responsible for a debt caused by his or her criminal actions, without affecting the other spouse’s share of the marital property. This revision is most likely the starting point for any potentially future needs for revisions.},
  author       = {Eriksson, Sofie},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,likadelningsprincipen,bodelningsförfarande,bodelning,brottsskadeersättning,skadestånd},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Ett ifrågasättande av likadelningsprincpen - Särskilt med beaktande av skadestånd och brottsskadeersättningar mellan makar},
  year         = {2012},
}