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Medling vid sexualbrott - Ytterligare en kränkning eller en rättighet?

Lindfors, Anna LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Rättvisa är ett otroligt centralt begrepp i straffrätten, i alla tider och i alla länder har vi har diskuterat vad rättvisa innebär och hur den skall uppnås. Ett svar på dessa frågor är teorin Restorative Justice, som utvecklades under senare delen av 1900-talet som ett alternativ till den rent retributiva rättvisan. Restorative Justice kännetecknas av fokus på det lidande och de skyldigheter som konflikter skapar samt stort deltagande av parterna. Mindre fokus läggs på bevisning och bestraffning, istället skall båda parter komma ur konflikten på bästa möjliga sätt, och detta uppnås genom något slags direkt eller indirekt möte. Med rötter mer eller mindre överallt i världen och försöksverksamheter i flera länder är det en teori på... (More)
Rättvisa är ett otroligt centralt begrepp i straffrätten, i alla tider och i alla länder har vi har diskuterat vad rättvisa innebär och hur den skall uppnås. Ett svar på dessa frågor är teorin Restorative Justice, som utvecklades under senare delen av 1900-talet som ett alternativ till den rent retributiva rättvisan. Restorative Justice kännetecknas av fokus på det lidande och de skyldigheter som konflikter skapar samt stort deltagande av parterna. Mindre fokus läggs på bevisning och bestraffning, istället skall båda parter komma ur konflikten på bästa möjliga sätt, och detta uppnås genom något slags direkt eller indirekt möte. Med rötter mer eller mindre överallt i världen och försöksverksamheter i flera länder är det en teori på framfart.

Även i Sverige har Restorative Justice fått genomslagskraft, om än i mindre omfattning. Den svenska medlingslagen stadgar att alla lagöverträdare under 21 år skall erbjudas medling, att medling är en del av straffrättssystemet, men inte en påföljd, och att medling ska användas som komplement till det rådande straffrättssystemet. Syftet med medling uppges vara att brottsoffer och gärningsman ska tala om brottet och dess konsekvenser för att minimera de skadliga effekterna av brottet. Däremot uttrycker propositionen bakom lagen att medling inte är lämpligt i sexualbrott.

Denna uppsats diskuterar hur medling kan fungera i samband med sexualbrott i relation till den kränkning som brottsoffret utsatts för. Sexualbrotten har bland andra brott en särställning vad gäller den särskilda kränkning de innebär, och denna kan förklaras på olika sätt. Antingen för att brottet riktas mot en otroligt personlig och privat del av vår tillvaro, eller för att brottet, som oftast riktar sig mot kvinnor, kränker kvinnor som grupp och tvingar dem att leva med skräcken för att utsättas för sexualbrott. Ytterligare en förklaring är den kränkning det innebär att bli totalt degraderad och objektifierad. Ur ett större samhällsperspektiv förklaras den särskilda kränkningen med att brottet kränker medborgerliga rättigheter, diskriminerar utifrån kön och kränker intressen som varje människa har rätt att få ha oinskränkta.

I förhållande till detta ställs de mål och möjligheter vid medling och de incitamenten för att medla som dokumenterats i Sverige. Dessa undersökningar redovisar mycket positiva resultat, och i stort sett alla parter är nöjda. Eftersom att sexualbrotten uteslutits från dessa försöksverksamheter måste materialet beaktas med försiktighet.

För att få en mer nyanserad bild används två komparativa perspektiv. Först presenteras en dansk undersökning av medling i sexualbrott genomförd 2003/2004. Denna är relevant då Danmarks lagstiftning kring medling och generella attityd till straffrätten i stort liknar vår svenska, med det undantaget att dansk lagstiftning inte utesluter sexualbrotten från medling. Undersökningen ger svar på varför kvinnorna (i denna undersökning var det endast kvinnor som var brottsoffer) ville träffa sin gärningsman och vad utfallet blev. Resultaten visar att alla kvinnorna kände sig stärkta av processen och ingen ångrade att de medlat. Det andra komparativa perspektivet ger inblick i ett land vars straffrättssystem skiljer sig mycket stort från det svenska, nämligen Nya Zeeland. Här är teorin om Restorative Justice helt och fullt implementerad i processen vid unga lagöverträdare och det finns inga restriktioner vad gäller sexualbrott. Restorative Justice har på grund av framgången även införts i processen för vuxna lagöverträdare, undantaget sexualbrotten. 2010 genomfördes en undersökning för Justitiedepartementet på Nya Zeeland som utreder om principerna som Restorative Justice bygger på kan uppfyllas och tillgodoses även vid sexualbrott. Resultaten visar på att det är möjligt, men att det kräver speciella förutsättningar och speciell kompetens.

Jag anser att målet och möjligheterna med medling kan uppfyllas även vid sexualbrott, trots den särskilda kränkning som brottet innebär. Det som är otroligt viktigt att komma ihåg är att långt ifrån alla sexualbrottsoffer vill träffa sin förövare, men för de som verkligen vill så kan medling vara till stor hjälp. Däremot betonar nästan alla undersökningar vikten av fortsatt forskning på Restorative Justice och medling. De projekt som undersökt teorin i samband med sexualbrott gör det likaså, och manar också till förståelse för den utmaning som sexualbrott innebär. Därför måste mitt svar modifieras på så vis att medling vid sexualbrott inte i sig är olämpligt, men det kräver en organisation som inte motsvaras av den vi har i Sverige idag. Kan vi inte möta de krav som medling vid sexualbrott ställer så blir medling vid sexualbrott olämpligt, trots det stora potential jag anser att medling och Restorative Justice har för sexualbrottsoffer. Det krävs också att vi släpper övertygelsen om att alla kvinnor mår bra av att slippa hantera konflikten själva och att samhället bäst löser den. Det finns kvinnor som vågar och vill ta kontroll över sin situation, och brottets allvarliga grad skall inte hindra oss från att uppfylla deras önskan utan istället motivera oss till att uppfylla den. (Less)
Abstract
The concept of justice, what it implies and how it shall be fulfilled, is something we have debated throughout history in every part of the world. The theory of Restorative Justice aims to give an answer to these questions. Developed towards the end of the twentieth century, as an alternative to the retributive justice, Restorative Justice focuses on the harm and the obligations that a crime creates and on the participation of all the people initially involved in the conflict. Less emphasis is placed on evidence and punishment; instead the main purpose is for both parties to resolve the conflict in the best possible way, and this is achieved through some kind of direct or indirect meeting. With roots more or less everywhere in the world,... (More)
The concept of justice, what it implies and how it shall be fulfilled, is something we have debated throughout history in every part of the world. The theory of Restorative Justice aims to give an answer to these questions. Developed towards the end of the twentieth century, as an alternative to the retributive justice, Restorative Justice focuses on the harm and the obligations that a crime creates and on the participation of all the people initially involved in the conflict. Less emphasis is placed on evidence and punishment; instead the main purpose is for both parties to resolve the conflict in the best possible way, and this is achieved through some kind of direct or indirect meeting. With roots more or less everywhere in the world, and different pilot programmes in various countries it is a theory gaining recognition.

Also in Sweden the theory has had impact, but less extensive. The Swedish law of mediation guarantees all lawbreakers under 21 an offer to mediate, it states that mediation is a part of the Swedish criminal law, but not a sanction, and that mediation shall be used as a complement to the traditional criminal law. The purpose is defined as the possibility for crime victims and offenders to discuss the crime incident and its consequences, to minimise the harm of the crime. The government is, though positive to mediation, of the opinion that it is inappropriate to mediate in cases of sexual violence.

This paper discusses how mediation can be applied in cases of sexual violence, considering the unique offence the crime comprehends. Sexual violence differs from other types of crimes in terms of the violation, and this can be described in various ways. One argument is that the exceptional harm of rape and other types of sexual violence can be explained by the private and personal area that is invaded, another is that, since the victims often are women, sexual violence is a crime against all women as a group and forces them to live under the constant threat of sexual violence. Others explain the harm of rape due to the objectification and degradation of the action. In a larger perspective the crime is described as an infringement of citizen rights, it discriminates on the basis of sex and violates interests that every human being has a right to have unrestricted.

On the other hand there are the documented purposes and possibilities with mediation and the incentives to mediate, documented in Sweden. These studies show highly positive results and almost all participants are content with the process. Since sexual violence has been excluded from these practices, the results, however, have limited importance.

To give a further nuanced view, two comparative studies are presented. First a Danish study on mediation in cases of sexual violence from 2003/2004. The study has relevance for Sweden since the Danish law concerning mediation, and the general view on criminal law in Denmark is very similar to the Swedish, with the exception that the Danish law does not exclude sexual violence from mediation. The study tells us both the reasoning behind the women’s (in this study all the victims were women) wishes to meat their perpetrator and the result of the meeting. All of the women responded that they felt strengthened by the process and none regretted their participation. The other comparative study concerns a country with a completely different criminal law compared to Sweden, New Zealand. The theory of Restorative Justice is here the hub of the juvenile criminal law, and there are no restrictions regarding sexual violence. Due to good results Restorative Justice has also been implemented in the process for adult perpetrators, with the exception of sexual violence cases. 2010 a study was made with funding from the Ministry of Justice concerning how the principles of Restorative Justice can be implemented in in cases of sexual violence. The results show that it is possible, but it requires a modified process and special competence.

I find that the purposes and possibilities with mediation can be achieved notwithstanding the unique offence the crime comprehends. It is important to recognize that far from every victim of a sexual offence wants to meet their perpetrator, but for those who want to, mediation can be valuable. On the other hand, almost all studies emphasize the need for more research concerning Restorative Justice and mediation. The studies that have applied the theory in cases of sexual violence also stress the need for comprehending the challenge that sexual violence represents. My answer must therefore be modified, I state that mediation in sexual violence cases is not inappropriate, but it demands an organisation that we do not have today in Sweden. If we cannot meet the demands that mediation in sexual violence require, it will be inappropriate to mediate in sexual violence, albeit the great potential I see in mediation for victims of sexual offences. It is also necessary that we let go of the belief that all women are best left out of the process and that the conflict is best handled by the authorities. There are women who dare to and want to take control of their situation, and the seriousness of the crime should not stop us from meeting their needs, but rather motivate us to fulfilling them. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindfors, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Mediation in cases of Sexual Violence - A further offense or a right?
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
2701954
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 11:19:21
date last changed
2012-10-15 11:19:21
@misc{2701954,
  abstract     = {The concept of justice, what it implies and how it shall be fulfilled, is something we have debated throughout history in every part of the world. The theory of Restorative Justice aims to give an answer to these questions. Developed towards the end of the twentieth century, as an alternative to the retributive justice, Restorative Justice focuses on the harm and the obligations that a crime creates and on the participation of all the people initially involved in the conflict. Less emphasis is placed on evidence and punishment; instead the main purpose is for both parties to resolve the conflict in the best possible way, and this is achieved through some kind of direct or indirect meeting. With roots more or less everywhere in the world, and different pilot programmes in various countries it is a theory gaining recognition. 

Also in Sweden the theory has had impact, but less extensive. The Swedish law of mediation guarantees all lawbreakers under 21 an offer to mediate, it states that mediation is a part of the Swedish criminal law, but not a sanction, and that mediation shall be used as a complement to the traditional criminal law. The purpose is defined as the possibility for crime victims and offenders to discuss the crime incident and its consequences, to minimise the harm of the crime. The government is, though positive to mediation, of the opinion that it is inappropriate to mediate in cases of sexual violence. 

This paper discusses how mediation can be applied in cases of sexual violence, considering the unique offence the crime comprehends. Sexual violence differs from other types of crimes in terms of the violation, and this can be described in various ways. One argument is that the exceptional harm of rape and other types of sexual violence can be explained by the private and personal area that is invaded, another is that, since the victims often are women, sexual violence is a crime against all women as a group and forces them to live under the constant threat of sexual violence. Others explain the harm of rape due to the objectification and degradation of the action. In a larger perspective the crime is described as an infringement of citizen rights, it discriminates on the basis of sex and violates interests that every human being has a right to have unrestricted. 

On the other hand there are the documented purposes and possibilities with mediation and the incentives to mediate, documented in Sweden. These studies show highly positive results and almost all participants are content with the process. Since sexual violence has been excluded from these practices, the results, however, have limited importance. 

To give a further nuanced view, two comparative studies are presented. First a Danish study on mediation in cases of sexual violence from 2003/2004. The study has relevance for Sweden since the Danish law concerning mediation, and the general view on criminal law in Denmark is very similar to the Swedish, with the exception that the Danish law does not exclude sexual violence from mediation. The study tells us both the reasoning behind the women’s (in this study all the victims were women) wishes to meat their perpetrator and the result of the meeting. All of the women responded that they felt strengthened by the process and none regretted their participation. The other comparative study concerns a country with a completely different criminal law compared to Sweden, New Zealand. The theory of Restorative Justice is here the hub of the juvenile criminal law, and there are no restrictions regarding sexual violence. Due to good results Restorative Justice has also been implemented in the process for adult perpetrators, with the exception of sexual violence cases. 2010 a study was made with funding from the Ministry of Justice concerning how the principles of Restorative Justice can be implemented in in cases of sexual violence. The results show that it is possible, but it requires a modified process and special competence. 

I find that the purposes and possibilities with mediation can be achieved notwithstanding the unique offence the crime comprehends. It is important to recognize that far from every victim of a sexual offence wants to meet their perpetrator, but for those who want to, mediation can be valuable. On the other hand, almost all studies emphasize the need for more research concerning Restorative Justice and mediation. The studies that have applied the theory in cases of sexual violence also stress the need for comprehending the challenge that sexual violence represents. My answer must therefore be modified, I state that mediation in sexual violence cases is not inappropriate, but it demands an organisation that we do not have today in Sweden. If we cannot meet the demands that mediation in sexual violence require, it will be inappropriate to mediate in sexual violence, albeit the great potential I see in mediation for victims of sexual offences. It is also necessary that we let go of the belief that all women are best left out of the process and that the conflict is best handled by the authorities. There are women who dare to and want to take control of their situation, and the seriousness of the crime should not stop us from meeting their needs, but rather motivate us to fulfilling them.},
  author       = {Lindfors, Anna},
  keyword      = {straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Medling vid sexualbrott - Ytterligare en kränkning eller en rättighet?},
  year         = {2012},
}