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Överlämnande på grund av brott- den europeiska och den nordiska arresteringsordern

Liatsou, Kristin LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Utlämningsinstitutet är en viktig del av det internationella straffrättsliga samarbetet. Syftet är att genom gemensamma insatser få till stånd lagföring av en brottsmisstänkt person, eller möjliggöra att ett redan utdömt straff kan verkställas. Utlämningsrätten har traditionellt reglerats genom multilaterala konventioner eller bilaterala avtal. Det var också på detta vis som relationen mellan EU:s medlemsländer reglerades. Med tiden kom det att bli ett komplext system på grund av ett flertal tilläggsprotokoll och ad hoc lösningar. Man beslutade att utlämningssamarbetet måste revideras för att bli mer effektivt. Detta resulterade i att det traditionella utlämningsförfarandet ersattes av ett överlämnandeförfarande som har sin grund i en... (More)
Utlämningsinstitutet är en viktig del av det internationella straffrättsliga samarbetet. Syftet är att genom gemensamma insatser få till stånd lagföring av en brottsmisstänkt person, eller möjliggöra att ett redan utdömt straff kan verkställas. Utlämningsrätten har traditionellt reglerats genom multilaterala konventioner eller bilaterala avtal. Det var också på detta vis som relationen mellan EU:s medlemsländer reglerades. Med tiden kom det att bli ett komplext system på grund av ett flertal tilläggsprotokoll och ad hoc lösningar. Man beslutade att utlämningssamarbetet måste revideras för att bli mer effektivt. Detta resulterade i att det traditionella utlämningsförfarandet ersattes av ett överlämnandeförfarande som har sin grund i en europeisk arresteringsorder. Systemet med ett överlämnande enligt en arresteringsorder bygger på principen om ömsesidigt erkännande.

Ett system för överlämnande skiljer sig från det traditionella utlämningsförfarandet i det att en arresteringsorder egentligen inte är framställan om överlämnande. En utfärdad arresteringsorder skall verkställas om ingen avslagsgrund är för handen. Den ena rättsliga myndigheten utfärdar en arresteringsorder och den andra verkställer den.

Syftet med det nya systemet är att förenkla utlämningsförfarandet. Samtidigt är det ett led i den generella målsättningen inom EU att skapa fri rörlighet för straffrättsliga avgöranden inom ett område med frihet, säkerhet och rättvisa. Fri rörlighet för rättsliga beslut är ett sätt att bemöta problemet med brottslingar som rör sig över gränserna, vilket har ökat som en följd av de öppnare gränserna inom EU.

När man inom EU tog fram rambeslutet om en europeisk arresteringsorder så använde man det nordiska utlämningssamarbetet som en förebild. På det nordiska justitieministermötet på Svalbard i juni 2002 beslutade man att det nordiska utlämningsförfarandet måste effektiviseras i åtminstone den utsträckning som det europeiska förfarandet hade gjorts. Tre år senare undertecknade de nordiska länderna en konvention om en nordisk arresteringsorder. Konventionen ersätter den nuvarande harmoniserade lagstiftning som reglerar utlämning mellan de nordiska länderna. För Sveriges del ersätter den i förhållande till Danmark och Finland även det europeiska arresteringsorderförfarandet.

Syftet med den nordiska konventionen är att förenkla och effektivisera det nordiska utlämningsförfarandet. Ett mer effektivt förfarande är nödvändigt för att kunna bemöta gränsöverskridande brottslighet. Konventionen är mer långtgående än både rambeslutet och den nuvarande nordiska ordningen. Detta visar att det mellan de nordiska länderna finns förutsättningar för ett avancerat straffrättsligt samarbete. I förhållande till den nuvarande nordiska ordningen innebär konventionen att ett fakultativt utlämningssamarbete med få avslagsgrunder byts ut mot ett obligatoriskt överlämnandeförfarande med desto fler avslagsgrunder.

Konventionen har införlivats i svensk rätt genom lagen om en nordisk arresteringsorder. Denna lag har dock inte trätt i kraft ännu, utan det sker den dagen regeringen bestämmer. När den nordiska arresteringsorderlagen träder i kraft upphör den nuvarande nordiska utlämningslagen att gälla.

Den europeiska arresteringsordern har varit i bruk sedan den 1 januari 2004 och den har hunnit få både beröm och kritik. Med tanke på att den europeiska arresteringsordern har inspirerat de nordiska länderna till att lämna det traditionella utlämningsförfarandet blir det intressant att undersöka om den kritik som har riktats mot den europeiska arresteringsordern också kan riktas mot den nordiska arresteringsordern. Det är även intressant att diskutera i vilken utsträckning den nordiska arresteringsordern kan utöka utlämningen mellan de nordiska länderna samt om den kan komma att inspirera ytterligare fördjupning av det europeiska överlämnandesamarbetet. (Less)
Abstract
Extradition as a legal institution is an important part of the international judicial cooperation. By cooperating States can accomplish the prosecution of a suspect or the execution of a judgment. The extradition law has traditionally contained international conventions and bilateral treaties. This is also the way in which the cooperation within the EU has been regulated. As time passed by the system became complex due to additional protocols and ad hoc agreements. It was decided that the cooperation on extradition should be revised to become more efficient. This resulted in the traditional procedure for extradition being replaced by a system of surrender based on a European Arrest Warrant. The surrender system is based on the principle of... (More)
Extradition as a legal institution is an important part of the international judicial cooperation. By cooperating States can accomplish the prosecution of a suspect or the execution of a judgment. The extradition law has traditionally contained international conventions and bilateral treaties. This is also the way in which the cooperation within the EU has been regulated. As time passed by the system became complex due to additional protocols and ad hoc agreements. It was decided that the cooperation on extradition should be revised to become more efficient. This resulted in the traditional procedure for extradition being replaced by a system of surrender based on a European Arrest Warrant. The surrender system is based on the principle of mutual recognition.

The surrender process differs from the traditional extradition procedure in the way of the EAW not being a request for extradition; rather the EAW shall be executed, given no ground for refusal is applicable. Simply put, one Member State issues the warrant and the other Member State is expected to execute it.

The purpose of the new system is to simplify the extradition procedure. At the same time it is part of the ultimate ambition of the Union to create a system of free movement of judicial decisions within an area of freedom, security and justice. Free movement of judicial decisions is one way of tackling the problem of criminals crossing borders. A problem partly created by the advent of open borders between the Member States of the EU.

In drafting and negotiating the Framework Decision of the European Arrest Warrant the system of intra-Nordic extradition was taken into account. Shortly after adopting the Framework Decision a meeting was held between the Nordic ministers of Justice in Svalbard. It was decided that the Nordic Extradition Acts should be revised based on the Framework Decision. Three years later a convention was concluded between the Nordic countries, a convention referred to as the “Nordic Arrest Warrant”. The convention will replace the existing Nordic Extradition Acts. And for Sweden it will also replace the EAW procedure in relation to Denmark and Finland.

The purpose of the convention is to provide a more effective and efficient system of extradition. In accordance with what was argued in favor of the EAW, a more efficient system is necessary for combating cross-boarder crime. The convention goes further than both the FD and the existing intra-Nordic system. This indicates the possibility of advanced judicial cooperation between the Nordic countries. In relation to the existing Nordic system the convention means that an optional extradition procedure with few grounds for refusal will be replaced by a mandatory surrender system however with several grounds for refusal.

In Sweden the convention has been implemented through the Act on surrender from Sweden according to a Nordic arrest warrant. The Act is not yet in force and will not be until the day Government decides so. When the Act of the Nordic Arrest Warrant enters into force the current Nordic Act will be withdrawn.

The EAW has been in force since the 1st of January 2004, and it has been seen as both positive and negative. As it has inspired the Nordic countries to also abandon the traditional extradition procedure it is interesting to discuss if criticisms directed at the EAW might also be relevant in the case of a Nordic arrest warrant. Another intriguing discussion will be to what extent the Nordic Arrest Warrant can enhance extradition between the Nordic countries. Moreover one can discuss if the Nordic Arrest Warrant will be of inspiration of future development of the European Arrest Warrant. (Less)
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author
Liatsou, Kristin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Surrender of suspected persons- the European and the Nordic arrest warrant
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, EU-rätt, arresteringsorder, överlämnande
language
Swedish
id
2732628
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 11:50:37
date last changed
2012-10-15 11:50:37
@misc{2732628,
  abstract     = {Extradition as a legal institution is an important part of the international judicial cooperation. By cooperating States can accomplish the prosecution of a suspect or the execution of a judgment. The extradition law has traditionally contained international conventions and bilateral treaties. This is also the way in which the cooperation within the EU has been regulated. As time passed by the system became complex due to additional protocols and ad hoc agreements. It was decided that the cooperation on extradition should be revised to become more efficient. This resulted in the traditional procedure for extradition being replaced by a system of surrender based on a European Arrest Warrant. The surrender system is based on the principle of mutual recognition.

The surrender process differs from the traditional extradition procedure in the way of the EAW not being a request for extradition; rather the EAW shall be executed, given no ground for refusal is applicable. Simply put, one Member State issues the warrant and the other Member State is expected to execute it.

The purpose of the new system is to simplify the extradition procedure. At the same time it is part of the ultimate ambition of the Union to create a system of free movement of judicial decisions within an area of freedom, security and justice. Free movement of judicial decisions is one way of tackling the problem of criminals crossing borders. A problem partly created by the advent of open borders between the Member States of the EU.

In drafting and negotiating the Framework Decision of the European Arrest Warrant the system of intra-Nordic extradition was taken into account. Shortly after adopting the Framework Decision a meeting was held between the Nordic ministers of Justice in Svalbard. It was decided that the Nordic Extradition Acts should be revised based on the Framework Decision. Three years later a convention was concluded between the Nordic countries, a convention referred to as the “Nordic Arrest Warrant”. The convention will replace the existing Nordic Extradition Acts. And for Sweden it will also replace the EAW procedure in relation to Denmark and Finland. 

The purpose of the convention is to provide a more effective and efficient system of extradition. In accordance with what was argued in favor of the EAW, a more efficient system is necessary for combating cross-boarder crime. The convention goes further than both the FD and the existing intra-Nordic system. This indicates the possibility of advanced judicial cooperation between the Nordic countries. In relation to the existing Nordic system the convention means that an optional extradition procedure with few grounds for refusal will be replaced by a mandatory surrender system however with several grounds for refusal.

In Sweden the convention has been implemented through the Act on surrender from Sweden according to a Nordic arrest warrant. The Act is not yet in force and will not be until the day Government decides so. When the Act of the Nordic Arrest Warrant enters into force the current Nordic Act will be withdrawn.

The EAW has been in force since the 1st of January 2004, and it has been seen as both positive and negative. As it has inspired the Nordic countries to also abandon the traditional extradition procedure it is interesting to discuss if criticisms directed at the EAW might also be relevant in the case of a Nordic arrest warrant. Another intriguing discussion will be to what extent the Nordic Arrest Warrant can enhance extradition between the Nordic countries. Moreover one can discuss if the Nordic Arrest Warrant will be of inspiration of future development of the European Arrest Warrant.},
  author       = {Liatsou, Kristin},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,EU-rätt,arresteringsorder,överlämnande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Överlämnande på grund av brott- den europeiska och den nordiska arresteringsordern},
  year         = {2012},
}