Advanced

Straffvärdebedömningen vid grova narkotikabrott

Elison, Ebba LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract
This essay describes the assessment of penal value concerning grave narcotic offenses. Up until 1923 narcotics did not have a legal meaning in Sweden, but as it was introduced in society and an addiction started spreading, the legislation also started to evolve around it. When it began to be known what intoxicative and addictive effects narcotics brought with it, and that these preparations started ending up in the hands of the young people it became a real problem for the society. The opinions were strong about how to solve the problem and the result after an effective struggle was public preventive measures. The penalties for drug offences were raised gradually and by this the society really wanted to show how serious they regarded drug... (More)
This essay describes the assessment of penal value concerning grave narcotic offenses. Up until 1923 narcotics did not have a legal meaning in Sweden, but as it was introduced in society and an addiction started spreading, the legislation also started to evolve around it. When it began to be known what intoxicative and addictive effects narcotics brought with it, and that these preparations started ending up in the hands of the young people it became a real problem for the society. The opinions were strong about how to solve the problem and the result after an effective struggle was public preventive measures. The penalties for drug offences were raised gradually and by this the society really wanted to show how serious they regarded drug offences to be.
Narcotics made its way long before international wise, which lead to several conventions and framework concerning that area. This in its turn had a big impact on our national legislation in many ways. Since all Nordic countries advocated and pursued a narcotic free area, consequently the legislation was adapted accordingly. In 1968 the drug penal law was incorporated which is applicable yet today and consists of a total of nine paragraphs. This together with a number of other laws and regulations are the ones that regulate narcotics legally. A big change in the legislation was the addition of criminalization of personal use that was incorporated in 1988.
Something unique concerning drug offences are the charts that has been developed through case law and after guidelines made by the Court of appeal in Skåne and Blekinge (HSB), and they are used in the assessment of penal value. The charts are build up after amount and what kind of narcotics it is concerning. It has come to realization after survey of case law that these charts have created a misleading and uneven result. The reason is mainly because the lower courts without hesitation followed the charts recommended penal value. Both the amount and the kind of narcotics are important factors in the assessment of penal value, but just as the preparatory work already have pointed out has the Supreme Court now chosen to revaluate how the assessment of penal value should be done and instead put significant weight to remaining circumstances in the drug cases. In summer of 2011 the Supreme Court sentenced in a case which outcome became the essential change in case law. The change concerns the grave narcotic offenses. Earlier the kind and amount of narcotics quickly made the penalties reach higher levels in the scale, but now the Supreme Court said that a gradation of case law is required and a larger space in the upper parts of the range of punishments should be used only for the really grave cases. As drug offences were taken to be sentenced in the Supreme Court this new assessment of penal value had an impact and even new charts are under construction to better suit the new existent case law.
1
This new case law has come to mean that the Supreme Court has gotten a new milder view on drug offences that before would have gotten really high penalties. All this has happened without a public debate and it seems as if politics have been left outside. Why this change came when it did, despite the fact that it is no innovation from the legislator’s side can only be speculated in. A presumed cause can of course be of what composition of judges we have in the Supreme Court today and that has resulted in that a change of the view of what is considered to be a grave drug offence or not now could happen.
With this change it will be harder for the prosecutors when it comes to the claim of sanction. However, this will hopefully lead to a more fair and proportional case law where the offender (most often it is men) gets the “right” penalty. Focus from the police side could come to be transferred from the minor drug offences to be on the heavy criminals that deal with narcotics mainly for the purpose of economical profit.
Now it is desirable that the politicians adapt themselves to this new point of view. That the high penalties would decrease the problems of narcotics has been shown to be incorrect and maybe now a more liberal view on narcotics is on its way to enter. Treatment should be the first priority concerning the addicts on the street, and more resources should be given to the police so they can build enough evidence together with the prosecutors so the offenders behind the really serious and grave drug offences get convicted. The Supreme Court has shown their position in the invincible debate and now remains to see what is the next step. Hopefully in long terms we can see a decreased spread of narcotics in society and thereby a decreased problem of narcotics. We have a long way to get there and with our strict view that we have on narcotics, there is more to obtain to reach the ultimate solution and see if it has the effect that is wanted. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats redogör för straffvärdebedömningen vid grova narkotikabrott. Fram till 1923 hade narkotika ingen juridisk innebörd i Sverige, men allteftersom det introducerades i samhället och ett missbruk började spridas, började också lagstiftningen utvecklas kring det. När det uppdagades vilka rusframkallande och beroendeframkallande effekter narkotika förde med sig, och att dessa preparat hamnade i ungdomars händer blev det ett verkligt samhällsproblem. Åsikterna var starka om hur man skulle lösa problemet och resultatet efter en effektiv kamp blev en allmänpreventiv väg. Straffen för narkotikabrott höjdes successivt och samhället ville med detta verkligen visa hur allvarligt de såg på narkotikabrott.
Narkotika banade sin väg långt... (More)
Denna uppsats redogör för straffvärdebedömningen vid grova narkotikabrott. Fram till 1923 hade narkotika ingen juridisk innebörd i Sverige, men allteftersom det introducerades i samhället och ett missbruk började spridas, började också lagstiftningen utvecklas kring det. När det uppdagades vilka rusframkallande och beroendeframkallande effekter narkotika förde med sig, och att dessa preparat hamnade i ungdomars händer blev det ett verkligt samhällsproblem. Åsikterna var starka om hur man skulle lösa problemet och resultatet efter en effektiv kamp blev en allmänpreventiv väg. Straffen för narkotikabrott höjdes successivt och samhället ville med detta verkligen visa hur allvarligt de såg på narkotikabrott.
Narkotika banade sin väg långt tidigare internationellt sett, vilket ledde till uppkomsten av flera konventioner och rambeslut kring området. Detta i sin tur präglade vår nationella lagstiftning till stor del. Eftersom hela Norden förespråkade och satsade på ett narkotikafritt område blev följaktligen också lagstiftningen anpassad därefter. 1968 infördes den narkotikalag som är tillämplig än idag och består av sammanlagt nio paragrafer. Denna tillsammans med en stor del andra lagar och förordningar är de som reglerar narkotikan rättsligt. En viktig förändring i lagstiftningen var tillägget av kriminalisering av eget bruk som infördes år 1988.
Något som är unikt vad gäller narkotikabrotten är de tabeller som utvecklats via praxis och efter riktlinjer från Hovrätten över Skåne och Blekinge (HSB), och används i straffvärdebedömningen. Det är mängd och farlighet som tabellerna utgår ifrån. Det har däremot visat sig vid överblick av praxis i narkotikamål att dessa tabeller skapat ett missvisande och ojämnt resultat. Till övervägande del beror det på att underrätterna ställde in sig i ledet och okritiskt följde tabellernas rekommenderade straffvärde. Både mängd och art narkotika är viktiga faktorer i straffvärdebedömningen, men precis som förarbeten sedan länge har påvisat har HD nu valt att omvärdera hur straffvärdebedömningen ska gå till och istället lägga betydande vikt vid övriga omständigheter i narkotikamålen. Sommaren 2011 dömde HD i ett mål vars utgång blev den avgörande förändringen i praxis. Förändringen rör de fall som gäller grova narkotikabrott. Tidigare har art och mängd narkotika fått straffen att snabbt nå maximum i skalan, men nu förklarade HD att en nyansering krävs och större utrymme i straffskalan ska finns för de verkligt allvarliga fallen. Allteftersom flera narkotikamål togs upp för bedömning i HD fick denna nya straffvärdebedömning genomslag och även nya tabeller är på väg att få sin utformning för att bättre anpassa rådande prejudikat.
Denna nya praxis har kommit att innebära att HD nu fått en mildare syn på narkotikabrott som tidigare skulle fått riktigt höga straff.
3
Allt detta har föregått utan någon samhällsdebatt och politiken har till synes lämnats utanför. Varför denna förändring kom när den gjorde, trots att det inte är något nytänkande från lagstiftarens sida kan bara spekuleras i. En förmodad orsak kan givetvis bero på vilken sammansättning vi har i HD idag och att den medfört att en ändring av synen på vad som ska anses som grovt narkotikabrott nu kunde ske.
Med denna förändring lär det bli svårare för åklagare vid påföljdsyrkandet. De objektiva rekvisiten får ta ett kliv åt sidan till förmån för de subjektiva. Däremot kommer det förhoppningsvis medföra en mer rättvis och proportionerlig rättspraxis där gärningsmannen (för det är nästan alltid män) får ”rätt” straff. Fokus från polismyndigheternas sida kan komma att förflyttas från de ringa narkotikabrotten till att ligga på de grovt kriminella som befattar sig med narkotika huvudsakligen för vinningens skull.
Nu är det önskvärt att politikerna tar till sig detta nya synsätt. Att de höga straffen skulle minska narkotikaproblemet i samhället har visat sig vara felaktigt. Kanske en mer liberal syn på narkotika är på väg att ta form. Behandling bör bli första prioritering vad gäller missbrukarna på gatan, och fler resurser bör ges polismyndigheterna så att de kan få fast de ansvariga bakom de riktigt allvarliga och grova narkotikabrotten. HD har tagit sin ställning i den osynliga debatten och nu återstår att se vad nästa steg blir. Förhoppningsvis kan vi på sikt se en minskad spridning av narkotika i samhället och därmed ett minskat narkotikaproblem. Vägen dit är lång och vi har med den hårda synen på narkotika som präglar vårt medvetande en bit kvar att gå för att hitta den ultimata lösningen och se om den får önskad effekt. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Elison, Ebba LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The assessment of penal value concerning grave narcotic offences
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Narkotika, Straffvärdebedömning
language
Swedish
id
2737215
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 12:01:00
date last changed
2012-10-15 12:01:00
@misc{2737215,
  abstract     = {This essay describes the assessment of penal value concerning grave narcotic offenses. Up until 1923 narcotics did not have a legal meaning in Sweden, but as it was introduced in society and an addiction started spreading, the legislation also started to evolve around it. When it began to be known what intoxicative and addictive effects narcotics brought with it, and that these preparations started ending up in the hands of the young people it became a real problem for the society. The opinions were strong about how to solve the problem and the result after an effective struggle was public preventive measures. The penalties for drug offences were raised gradually and by this the society really wanted to show how serious they regarded drug offences to be.
Narcotics made its way long before international wise, which lead to several conventions and framework concerning that area. This in its turn had a big impact on our national legislation in many ways. Since all Nordic countries advocated and pursued a narcotic free area, consequently the legislation was adapted accordingly. In 1968 the drug penal law was incorporated which is applicable yet today and consists of a total of nine paragraphs. This together with a number of other laws and regulations are the ones that regulate narcotics legally. A big change in the legislation was the addition of criminalization of personal use that was incorporated in 1988.
Something unique concerning drug offences are the charts that has been developed through case law and after guidelines made by the Court of appeal in Skåne and Blekinge (HSB), and they are used in the assessment of penal value. The charts are build up after amount and what kind of narcotics it is concerning. It has come to realization after survey of case law that these charts have created a misleading and uneven result. The reason is mainly because the lower courts without hesitation followed the charts recommended penal value. Both the amount and the kind of narcotics are important factors in the assessment of penal value, but just as the preparatory work already have pointed out has the Supreme Court now chosen to revaluate how the assessment of penal value should be done and instead put significant weight to remaining circumstances in the drug cases. In summer of 2011 the Supreme Court sentenced in a case which outcome became the essential change in case law. The change concerns the grave narcotic offenses. Earlier the kind and amount of narcotics quickly made the penalties reach higher levels in the scale, but now the Supreme Court said that a gradation of case law is required and a larger space in the upper parts of the range of punishments should be used only for the really grave cases. As drug offences were taken to be sentenced in the Supreme Court this new assessment of penal value had an impact and even new charts are under construction to better suit the new existent case law.
1
This new case law has come to mean that the Supreme Court has gotten a new milder view on drug offences that before would have gotten really high penalties. All this has happened without a public debate and it seems as if politics have been left outside. Why this change came when it did, despite the fact that it is no innovation from the legislator’s side can only be speculated in. A presumed cause can of course be of what composition of judges we have in the Supreme Court today and that has resulted in that a change of the view of what is considered to be a grave drug offence or not now could happen.
With this change it will be harder for the prosecutors when it comes to the claim of sanction. However, this will hopefully lead to a more fair and proportional case law where the offender (most often it is men) gets the “right” penalty. Focus from the police side could come to be transferred from the minor drug offences to be on the heavy criminals that deal with narcotics mainly for the purpose of economical profit.
Now it is desirable that the politicians adapt themselves to this new point of view. That the high penalties would decrease the problems of narcotics has been shown to be incorrect and maybe now a more liberal view on narcotics is on its way to enter. Treatment should be the first priority concerning the addicts on the street, and more resources should be given to the police so they can build enough evidence together with the prosecutors so the offenders behind the really serious and grave drug offences get convicted. The Supreme Court has shown their position in the invincible debate and now remains to see what is the next step. Hopefully in long terms we can see a decreased spread of narcotics in society and thereby a decreased problem of narcotics. We have a long way to get there and with our strict view that we have on narcotics, there is more to obtain to reach the ultimate solution and see if it has the effect that is wanted.},
  author       = {Elison, Ebba},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Narkotika,Straffvärdebedömning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Straffvärdebedömningen vid grova narkotikabrott},
  year         = {2012},
}