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Organiserad brottslighet och vapen - en studie av det grova vapenbrottet

Ek, Jenny LU (2012) JURM02 20121
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
En rad uppmärksammade skjutningar i bland annat Malmö ledde under
våren 2012 till en ökad opinion för att den befintliga vapenlagstiftningen
behövde skärpas, speciellt vad gäller innehav av vapen där innehavaren har
en anknytning till organiserad brottslighet. Att äga eller inneha ett
skjutvapen beskrivs som en del av en kriminell livsstil och efterfrågan på
skjutvapen kan till stor del tillskrivas de kriminella gäng som utgör den
organiserade brottsligheten.

Det grova vapenbrottet regleras idag i 9 kap. 1 § andra stycket Vapenlagen
och utpekas i förarbeten som innehav av skjutvapen under former som
medför att skjutvapnet kan befaras komma till brottslig användning. I
förarbeten och praxis beskrivs omständigheter som talar för... (More)
En rad uppmärksammade skjutningar i bland annat Malmö ledde under
våren 2012 till en ökad opinion för att den befintliga vapenlagstiftningen
behövde skärpas, speciellt vad gäller innehav av vapen där innehavaren har
en anknytning till organiserad brottslighet. Att äga eller inneha ett
skjutvapen beskrivs som en del av en kriminell livsstil och efterfrågan på
skjutvapen kan till stor del tillskrivas de kriminella gäng som utgör den
organiserade brottsligheten.

Det grova vapenbrottet regleras idag i 9 kap. 1 § andra stycket Vapenlagen
och utpekas i förarbeten som innehav av skjutvapen under former som
medför att skjutvapnet kan befaras komma till brottslig användning. I
förarbeten och praxis beskrivs omständigheter som talar för detta vara
innehav av livsfarliga vapen utan lagligt användningsområde, innehav av en
större mängd vapen samt om skjutvapnet har medförts på allmän plats.
Praxis från tingsrätterna har dock anklagats för att inte vara enhetlig, vilket
är ett rättssäkerhetsproblem.

Som en reaktion på skjutningarna och de efterföljande offentliga
diskussionerna lade regeringen under våren fram en ny proposition som
syftade till att klargöra vilka omständigheter som särskilt ska beaktas vid
bedömning av huruvida skjutvapnet kan befaras komma till brottslig
användning. Lagförslaget ska därigenom bidra till en enhetlig
rättstillämpning samt till att fler innehav bedöms som grova brott. I
propositionen föreslås att i lagtext införa att särskild vikt ska läggas vid
huruvida det är fråga om livsfarliga vapen, hur många vapen det har rört sig
om samt huruvida vapnet har innehafts på en allmän plats, i ett fordon på
allmän plats eller inom ett skolområde. Lagförslaget kodifierar alltså de
omständigheter som redan finns i förarbeten samt i praxis. Frågan är dock
om denna lagändring kommer innebära att fler innehav bedöms som grova
då lagändringen inte innebär en ändring av rättsläget, utan endast bidrar till
ett klargörande av detta. För att få fler innehav att bli bedömda som grova
har föreslagits att ytterligare en omständighet införs nämligen att anknytning
till organiserad brottslighet ska konstituera en sådan omständighet som ska
beaktas särskilt vid klassificeringen.

En sådan nykriminalisering måste uppfylla några generella krav.
Handlingen måste ha ett straffvärde och nykriminaliseringen ska vara
effektiv för att uppnå syftet med lagändringen. Att införa anknytning till
organiserad brottslighet som försvårande omständighet vid klassificeringen
av vapenbrott dock inte i enlighet med legalitetsprincipen då begreppen
anknytning samt organiserad brottslighet är svåra att definiera.
Lagändringen skulle även strida mot rätten till föreningsfrihet då den skulle
innebära att vissa innehav straffas hårdare än andra baserat på den tilltalades
anknytning till en viss grupp eller förening, en gärning som i sig saknar
straffvärde.

Ett annat förslag på en faktor som kan införas i lagtext istället för
anknytning till organiserad brottslighet är en omständighet som liknar den
försvårande omständigheten vid straffmätning i 29 kap. 2 § sjätte punkten
BrB. Omständigheten skulle innebära att särskild vikt lades vid innehav som
utgör led i en brottslighet som bedrivs i organiserad form. Denna skulle vara
i enlighet med legalitetsprincipen och rätten till föreningsfrihet samtidigt som den genom att bidra till en enhetlig rättstillämpning skulle kunna öka
antalet innehav som bedöms som grova. (Less)
Abstract
During 2011-2012 a row of violent shootings took place in Sweden which
lead the government to present a bill proposing to change the legislation
concerning firearms. During this process there were suggestions as to make
the bill strike harder against possessions of firearms by individuals
associated with organized crime as firearms are common amongst those
living criminal lives and because the demands of firearms in these
environments often is linked to criminal gangs.

In the Swedish statute concerning firearms, Vapenlagen, the aggravated
crime is a possession of firearms under circumstances that can lead to a
suspicion that the firearm will be used to commit other crimes. In legislative
history and established practice... (More)
During 2011-2012 a row of violent shootings took place in Sweden which
lead the government to present a bill proposing to change the legislation
concerning firearms. During this process there were suggestions as to make
the bill strike harder against possessions of firearms by individuals
associated with organized crime as firearms are common amongst those
living criminal lives and because the demands of firearms in these
environments often is linked to criminal gangs.

In the Swedish statute concerning firearms, Vapenlagen, the aggravated
crime is a possession of firearms under circumstances that can lead to a
suspicion that the firearm will be used to commit other crimes. In legislative
history and established practice circumstances such as the possession of lifethreathening
guns, possession of a quantitative number of guns and
possession of a gun in a public place has constituted such circumstances
leading to a verdict for an aggravated crime. Lately, judgments from the
courts of first instance have been accused of not being uniform, which can
be a threat to the rule of law.

The new bill proposed, as a means of strengthening the uniformity of
judgments and making more possessions being considered as aggravated
crimes, to introduce those circumstances already mentioned in legislative
history and established practice in the text of law. The bill thus proposes to
codify circumstances already in use in the classification of these crimes. But
this new bill will not infer that more possessions will be considered as
aggravated crimes as it will not change the legal position. This paper instead
suggests that, to have more possessions be considered as aggravated, new
circumstances will have to be introduced. One circumstance can compose
that the possession of a firearm might constitute an aggravated crime when
the person is associated with organized crime.

Such a criminalization must however fulfill some general demands: it has to
be seen as legitimate and be effective to attain its purpose. It also has to be
in line with the principle of legality and the freedom of association. To
comply with these demands this paper suggests that a better solution is to
propose a circumstance stating that special attention should be placed at
whether or not the possession is part of a criminality exercised in an
organized form when contemplating if a possession should be an aggravated
crime. This formulation should be in compliance with the above stated
demands, as it places the emphasis not on the association with organized
crime but on whether or not the individual actually has participated in
criminal acts. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ek, Jenny LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Organized crime and firearms - a study of the aggravated firearm offense
course
JURM02 20121
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt vapenbrott organiserad brottslighet
language
Swedish
id
2740387
date added to LUP
2012-10-15 12:03:05
date last changed
2012-10-15 12:03:05
@misc{2740387,
  abstract     = {During 2011-2012 a row of violent shootings took place in Sweden which
lead the government to present a bill proposing to change the legislation
concerning firearms. During this process there were suggestions as to make
the bill strike harder against possessions of firearms by individuals
associated with organized crime as firearms are common amongst those
living criminal lives and because the demands of firearms in these
environments often is linked to criminal gangs.

In the Swedish statute concerning firearms, Vapenlagen, the aggravated
crime is a possession of firearms under circumstances that can lead to a
suspicion that the firearm will be used to commit other crimes. In legislative
history and established practice circumstances such as the possession of lifethreathening
guns, possession of a quantitative number of guns and
possession of a gun in a public place has constituted such circumstances
leading to a verdict for an aggravated crime. Lately, judgments from the
courts of first instance have been accused of not being uniform, which can
be a threat to the rule of law.

The new bill proposed, as a means of strengthening the uniformity of
judgments and making more possessions being considered as aggravated
crimes, to introduce those circumstances already mentioned in legislative
history and established practice in the text of law. The bill thus proposes to
codify circumstances already in use in the classification of these crimes. But
this new bill will not infer that more possessions will be considered as
aggravated crimes as it will not change the legal position. This paper instead
suggests that, to have more possessions be considered as aggravated, new
circumstances will have to be introduced. One circumstance can compose
that the possession of a firearm might constitute an aggravated crime when
the person is associated with organized crime.

Such a criminalization must however fulfill some general demands: it has to
be seen as legitimate and be effective to attain its purpose. It also has to be
in line with the principle of legality and the freedom of association. To
comply with these demands this paper suggests that a better solution is to
propose a circumstance stating that special attention should be placed at
whether or not the possession is part of a criminality exercised in an
organized form when contemplating if a possession should be an aggravated
crime. This formulation should be in compliance with the above stated
demands, as it places the emphasis not on the association with organized
crime but on whether or not the individual actually has participated in
criminal acts.},
  author       = {Ek, Jenny},
  keyword      = {straffrätt vapenbrott organiserad brottslighet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Organiserad brottslighet och vapen - en studie av det grova vapenbrottet},
  year         = {2012},
}