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Tillämpning av förutsättningsläran och 36 § avtalslagen vid ändrade förhållanden

Drozdova, Marina LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Frågan om vilken verkan ändrade förhållanden har i en avtalsrelation har alltid varit ett av kontrakträttens mest uppmärksammade problem. Vid långvariga avtal blir utvecklingen inte sällan annan än vad parterna kunnat förutse vid avtalets ingående. Ett långvarigt avtal kan sålunda under en stor del av giltighetstid ha varit förmånligt för bägge parter, men sedan på grund av ändrade förhållande blivit mindre fördelaktigt för någon av dessa. Utgångspunkten är dock även i sådana fall att principen om avtalsbundenheten, pacta sunt servanda gäller. I vissa undantagsfall kan dock ändrade förhållanden medföra att uppfyllelse av avtalsförpliktelser kan anses som extraordinärt betungande eller att hela syftet med avtalet förfaller för någon av... (More)
Frågan om vilken verkan ändrade förhållanden har i en avtalsrelation har alltid varit ett av kontrakträttens mest uppmärksammade problem. Vid långvariga avtal blir utvecklingen inte sällan annan än vad parterna kunnat förutse vid avtalets ingående. Ett långvarigt avtal kan sålunda under en stor del av giltighetstid ha varit förmånligt för bägge parter, men sedan på grund av ändrade förhållande blivit mindre fördelaktigt för någon av dessa. Utgångspunkten är dock även i sådana fall att principen om avtalsbundenheten, pacta sunt servanda gäller. I vissa undantagsfall kan dock ändrade förhållanden medföra att uppfyllelse av avtalsförpliktelser kan anses som extraordinärt betungande eller att hela syftet med avtalet förfaller för någon av parterna. I sådana fall kan en viss befrielse från avtalsåtagande medges. Det är just dessa undantagsfall som behandlas i detta examensarbete.

De allmänna rättsregler som finns att tillämpa vid ändrade förhållanden är förutsättningsläran och den stora generalklausulen i 36 § avtalslagen. Det finns dessutom ett stort antal särskilda rättsregler för olika avtalstyper som tar hänsyn till oförutsedda förhållanden. Avtalsparterna erbjuds också fler flexibla lösningar. Till exempel har de möjligheten att, genom avtalsreglering, på egen hand kunna ordna de problem som kan uppkomma till följd av ändrade förhållanden. Det är dock väldigt svårt, om inte omöjligt, att redan vid avtalsslutet förutse och skydda sig mot alla typer av oförmånliga händelseutvecklingar.

De oförmånliga effekter som kan uppkomma till följd av ändrade förhållande kan indelas enligt följande. Den ena situationen som kan uppkomma är att förmånerna som följer av avtalet uteblir eller blir mindre än man avsett. Den andra situationen är att den egna fullgörelsen av avtalsförpliktelser blir omöjlig eller på annat sätt mer betungande eller rentav riskfylld. Uppsatsen redogör för hur den drabbade avtalsparten kan undvika att ensam bära dem risker som uppkommer på grund av sådana oförmånliga händelser.

I arbetet presenteras de förutsättningarna som bör vara uppfyllda för att parterna ska nå framgång med åberopande av förutsättningsläran och 36 § avtalslagen samt vilka påföljder parterna kan yrka på med åberopande av respektive rättsgrundsats. En särskild del av arbetet berör en komplicerad fråga om relation mellan dessa bestämmelser. Eftersom många rättsvetenskapsmän anser att vid prövningen av ändrade förhållande enligt 36 § avtalslagen vägledningen kan tas i internationella artikelsamlingar, kunde denna fråga inte förbigås i detta arbete. (Less)
Abstract
The significance of changed conditions for contractual obligations and liabilities has always been one of the most debated contract law issues. In long-term agreements it is often extremely difficult to forecast all possible effects of a contract due to the fact that conditions under which the contracting parties have entered into such contract may drastically change. The substance of a long-term agreement or contract which has been beneficial for both contracting parties for a long time may, due to the changed conditions, be changed in such way that the agreement will no longer be to the best interest of one of the contracting parties. Even in these cases, the starting-point is, however, that the principle of pacta sunt servanda applies.... (More)
The significance of changed conditions for contractual obligations and liabilities has always been one of the most debated contract law issues. In long-term agreements it is often extremely difficult to forecast all possible effects of a contract due to the fact that conditions under which the contracting parties have entered into such contract may drastically change. The substance of a long-term agreement or contract which has been beneficial for both contracting parties for a long time may, due to the changed conditions, be changed in such way that the agreement will no longer be to the best interest of one of the contracting parties. Even in these cases, the starting-point is, however, that the principle of pacta sunt servanda applies. Although in some cases the implementation of pacta sunt servanda may lead to absurd consequences due to the changed conditions. For example this may be the case if the enforcement of the agreement will lead to liabilities that are extraordinary onerous for one of the contracting parties. Another example is if the implementation of an agreement contradicts with the purpose of the agreement as such. In these cases the contracting parties may be able to claim that some of the terms in an agreement should be regarded as void. Such cases and exceptions are the topic of this master thesis.

The common rules that can be applied under changed conditions are the doctrine of assumptions or section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. Furthermore, there are numerous rules of law which apply for different specific types of agreements or contracts. Such rules often consider and stipulate the effect of a contract if the conditions change. The contracting parties are also offered the possibility to resolve the issues that may arise due to the changed conditions themselves by including different clauses in their contracts. Such clauses should stipulate the implementation of the contractual terms upon changed conditions. However, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to forecast and stipulate all possible unfavourable developments and changes, already in the beginning of a contractual relationship.

The unfavourable developments that may arise due to the changed conditions are divided in two following types of situations. The first type of situation may arise if a contract becomes less beneficial or even disadvantageous compared to the initially intended effect of the contract. The second type of situation is if the fulfilment of all of the contractual terms becomes more onerous or even practically impossible. In the master thesis it is described how one contracting party may avoid bearing all of the risks and liabilities associated with a contract that may arise due to the changed conditions.

This master thesis presents the conditions that should be fulfilled in order to implement the doctrine of assumptions or section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. The legal consequences of implementation of the doctrine of assumptions and section 36 are also described. Another important topic discussed in the master thesis is the correlation between the doctrine of the assumptions and section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. Since many of the legal scientists argue in favour of the usage of international principles when section 36 of the Swedish Contract Law is used for changed conditions, this subject is also described and discussed in this master thesis. (Less)
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author
Drozdova, Marina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Implementation of the doctrine of assumptions and section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act under changed conditions
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, förutsättningsläran, generalklausulen, 36 § avtalslagen, ändrade förhållanden
language
Swedish
id
3349709
date added to LUP
2013-01-28 13:14:31
date last changed
2013-01-28 13:14:31
@misc{3349709,
  abstract     = {The significance of changed conditions for contractual obligations and liabilities has always been one of the most debated contract law issues. In long-term agreements it is often extremely difficult to forecast all possible effects of a contract due to the fact that conditions under which the contracting parties have entered into such contract may drastically change. The substance of a long-term agreement or contract which has been beneficial for both contracting parties for a long time may, due to the changed conditions, be changed in such way that the agreement will no longer be to the best interest of one of the contracting parties. Even in these cases, the starting-point is, however, that the principle of pacta sunt servanda applies. Although in some cases the implementation of pacta sunt servanda may lead to absurd consequences due to the changed conditions. For example this may be the case if the enforcement of the agreement will lead to liabilities that are extraordinary onerous for one of the contracting parties. Another example is if the implementation of an agreement contradicts with the purpose of the agreement as such. In these cases the contracting parties may be able to claim that some of the terms in an agreement should be regarded as void. Such cases and exceptions are the topic of this master thesis. 
 
The common rules that can be applied under changed conditions are the doctrine of assumptions or section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. Furthermore, there are numerous rules of law which apply for different specific types of agreements or contracts. Such rules often consider and stipulate the effect of a contract if the conditions change. The contracting parties are also offered the possibility to resolve the issues that may arise due to the changed conditions themselves by including different clauses in their contracts. Such clauses should stipulate the implementation of the contractual terms upon changed conditions. However, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to forecast and stipulate all possible unfavourable developments and changes, already in the beginning of a contractual relationship. 
 
The unfavourable developments that may arise due to the changed conditions are divided in two following types of situations. The first type of situation may arise if a contract becomes less beneficial or even disadvantageous compared to the initially intended effect of the contract. The second type of situation is if the fulfilment of all of the contractual terms becomes more onerous or even practically impossible. In the master thesis it is described how one contracting party may avoid bearing all of the risks and liabilities associated with a contract that may arise due to the changed conditions. 
 
This master thesis presents the conditions that should be fulfilled in order to implement the doctrine of assumptions or section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. The legal consequences of implementation of the doctrine of assumptions and section 36 are also described. Another important topic discussed in the master thesis is the correlation between the doctrine of the assumptions and section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act. Since many of the legal scientists argue in favour of the usage of international principles when section 36 of the Swedish Contract Law is used for changed conditions, this subject is also described and discussed in this master thesis.},
  author       = {Drozdova, Marina},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,förutsättningsläran,generalklausulen,36 § avtalslagen,ändrade förhållanden},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tillämpning av förutsättningsläran och 36 § avtalslagen vid ändrade förhållanden},
  year         = {2012},
}