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Tillfället gör polisen: Om envars rätt att gripa

Fast, Jonas LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I svensk rätt existerar sedan mycket länge en rätt för var och en att gripa personer som begår brott, om detta sker på bar gärning. I detta arbete undersöks ingående den bestämmelse i rättegångsbalken som reglerar detta förfarande. Vad gäller rekvisiten i bestämmelsen, framstår frågan om vad som ska anses vara på bar gärning som särskilt problematisk. Det är ett område där praxis också är tvetydig. Avgörande tycks vara att man vid gripande utesluter förväxlingsrisk mellan den skyldige brottslingen och någon annan. Till övriga rekvisit i bestämmelsen hör att brottet måste kunna föranleda fängelse samt att den gripne skyndsamt ska överlämnas till polis.
När ett envarsgripande genomförs tilldelas den gripande vissa befogenheter. Dessa... (More)
I svensk rätt existerar sedan mycket länge en rätt för var och en att gripa personer som begår brott, om detta sker på bar gärning. I detta arbete undersöks ingående den bestämmelse i rättegångsbalken som reglerar detta förfarande. Vad gäller rekvisiten i bestämmelsen, framstår frågan om vad som ska anses vara på bar gärning som särskilt problematisk. Det är ett område där praxis också är tvetydig. Avgörande tycks vara att man vid gripande utesluter förväxlingsrisk mellan den skyldige brottslingen och någon annan. Till övriga rekvisit i bestämmelsen hör att brottet måste kunna föranleda fängelse samt att den gripne skyndsamt ska överlämnas till polis.
När ett envarsgripande genomförs tilldelas den gripande vissa befogenheter. Dessa regleras bl.a. i polislagens bestämmelser om våldsanvändning och genom vissa ansvarsfrihetsgrunder i brottsbalken. Proportionalitetsprincipen är central för vad man får göra och utifrån hur denna har tillämpats i praxis kan man se olika konkreta handlingar som ansetts godtagbara. Förflyttning av personer och vissa beslag hör till sådant som har godtagits medan långtgående våldshandlingar inte accepteras. Kring befogenheten kan man också märka att det finns vissa personer som genom specialreglering intar en särskild rättslig ställning. Detta gäller främst sådana personer som i sin yrkesutövning har att upprätthålla ordning. Tydligtvis uppstår vissa tillämpningsproblem av det faktum att envarsgripanderegeln används av så många olika personkategorier.
Då envarsgripanden genomförs av enskilda, sätts de yttre gränserna för vad som är tillåtet av de straffbud som finns i svensk rätt. Effekten av envarsgripanderegeln är att den ger ansvarsfrihet för den som griper, då denne gör något som egentligen är brottsligt. Det finns visst utrymme för att göra felbedömningar och ändå hålla sig inom regeln. Det är också möjligt att man, trots att man inte omfattas av regeln, undgår straffansvar eftersom man inte har uppsåt till brott. Även vad gäller dessa bedömningar kring felbeslut finns det en diskrepans i tillämpning föranledd av de olika personkategorier som omfattas av regelverket. Som exempel kan nämnas att polisers uppsåt bedöms annorlunda än enskildas vid våldsanvändning.
Envarsgripandeinstitutet betraktas i regel som ett tvångsmedel. Med hänsyn till hur det används kan det också tänkas att det skulle kunna ses som en ansvarsfrihetsgrund. Det är också tänkbart att regeln delvis finns till för att påvisa ett önskvärt moraliskt beteende. I författarens mening är en lämplig förändring av institutet att omklassificera det till just en ansvarsfrihetsgrund och att skapa särreglering för vissa yrkesgrupper. (Less)
Abstract
In Swedish law, we’ve long had a right for every person to arrest other people who commit crimes, on condition that the person is caught in the act of doing this. This essay thoroughly examines the paragraph in the Code of Judicial Procedure which regulates this practice. Concerning the necessary prerequisites of the paragraph, the question of whether the criminal is caught in the act or red-handed seems to be one of the more difficult issues. The rulings given on this issue are also somewhat ambiguous. A deciding factor seems to be the elimination of any risk of confusion between the criminal and someone else. Other necessary conditions for applying the rule include; that the crime may lead to imprisonment and that the arrestee is swiftly... (More)
In Swedish law, we’ve long had a right for every person to arrest other people who commit crimes, on condition that the person is caught in the act of doing this. This essay thoroughly examines the paragraph in the Code of Judicial Procedure which regulates this practice. Concerning the necessary prerequisites of the paragraph, the question of whether the criminal is caught in the act or red-handed seems to be one of the more difficult issues. The rulings given on this issue are also somewhat ambiguous. A deciding factor seems to be the elimination of any risk of confusion between the criminal and someone else. Other necessary conditions for applying the rule include; that the crime may lead to imprisonment and that the arrestee is swiftly turned over to the police.
When a citizen’s arrest is conducted, the arresting person is entitled to certain actions. These are given partly by the rules on the use of violence in the Police Act and by the freedoms from liability stated in the Penal Code. The principle of proportionality and its application is essential as to decide which actions are allowed. Actions that have been ruled legal include transportation of the arrestee and some types of confiscation while severe acts of violence have been deemed illegal. Some people have additional mandates because of special regulations concerning certain occupations, in particular; people who in their work maintain public order. The fact that many different categories of people are affected by the rule seems to create some difficulties in its application.
Since citizen’s arrests are performed by private persons, the outer scope for what constitutes a legal arrest is regulated first and foremost by what is or isn’t a crime. The result of applying the citizen’s arrests rule is that the arresting person isn’t liable to punishment even if he or she conducts criminal acts. There is some room for making wrongful assessments as to what is allowed within the rule. Even when the rule is not applicable there is a chance to avoid criminal liability by not having criminal intent. This room for error is subject to differentiated application depending on who is subject to the judgement. An example of this is that police officers are judged differently than private persons, regarding criminal intent when using violence.
The citizen’s arrest rule is generally considered to be a coercive measure. In view of how it is used, it is also possible to regard it as a freedom from liability. Perhaps the rule also partly exists to illustrate an ideal moral behaviour. The author argues that a desirable law change would be to reclassify the rule into constituting a freedom from liability and to create a special set of rules for certain occupational groups. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Fast, Jonas LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Oppurtunity makes the police: On the right to perform citizen's arrests
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
envarsgripande, straffrätt, straffprocessrätt, tvångsmedel
language
Swedish
id
3350171
date added to LUP
2013-01-28 13:11:45
date last changed
2013-01-28 13:11:45
@misc{3350171,
  abstract     = {In Swedish law, we’ve long had a right for every person to arrest other people who commit crimes, on condition that the person is caught in the act of doing this. This essay thoroughly examines the paragraph in the Code of Judicial Procedure which regulates this practice. Concerning the necessary prerequisites of the paragraph, the question of whether the criminal is caught in the act or red-handed seems to be one of the more difficult issues. The rulings given on this issue are also somewhat ambiguous. A deciding factor seems to be the elimination of any risk of confusion between the criminal and someone else. Other necessary conditions for applying the rule include; that the crime may lead to imprisonment and that the arrestee is swiftly turned over to the police.
When a citizen’s arrest is conducted, the arresting person is entitled to certain actions. These are given partly by the rules on the use of violence in the Police Act and by the freedoms from liability stated in the Penal Code. The principle of proportionality and its application is essential as to decide which actions are allowed. Actions that have been ruled legal include transportation of the arrestee and some types of confiscation while severe acts of violence have been deemed illegal. Some people have additional mandates because of special regulations concerning certain occupations, in particular; people who in their work maintain public order. The fact that many different categories of people are affected by the rule seems to create some difficulties in its application.
Since citizen’s arrests are performed by private persons, the outer scope for what constitutes a legal arrest is regulated first and foremost by what is or isn’t a crime. The result of applying the citizen’s arrests rule is that the arresting person isn’t liable to punishment even if he or she conducts criminal acts. There is some room for making wrongful assessments as to what is allowed within the rule. Even when the rule is not applicable there is a chance to avoid criminal liability by not having criminal intent. This room for error is subject to differentiated application depending on who is subject to the judgement. An example of this is that police officers are judged differently than private persons, regarding criminal intent when using violence.
The citizen’s arrest rule is generally considered to be a coercive measure. In view of how it is used, it is also possible to regard it as a freedom from liability. Perhaps the rule also partly exists to illustrate an ideal moral behaviour. The author argues that a desirable law change would be to reclassify the rule into constituting a freedom from liability and to create a special set of rules for certain occupational groups.},
  author       = {Fast, Jonas},
  keyword      = {envarsgripande,straffrätt,straffprocessrätt,tvångsmedel},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tillfället gör polisen: Om envars rätt att gripa},
  year         = {2012},
}