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Allmän reklamationsplikt utanför det lagreglerade området

Nikolai, Elsa LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen utreder huruvida det finns stöd för att det när ett avtalsbrott begåtts finns någon allmän reklamationsskyldighet i svensk rätt. Om neutral reklamation eller specialreklamation avseende hävning, skadestånd eller naturafullgörelse krävs behandlas även.

För att definiera reklamationsinstitutet behandlas passivitetsregler och preskription, som är till reklamation näraliggande institut eftersom de alla medför rättsverkningar efter viss tids passivitet. Reglerna kan sägas komplettera varandra. Preskriptionsreglerna föreskriver den sista tidpunkten för när anspråk får framställas. Passivitetsreglerna ger stöd för att efter viss tids passivitet kan subjektiva insikter på den avtalsbrytande partens sida ge upphov till verkningar.... (More)
Uppsatsen utreder huruvida det finns stöd för att det när ett avtalsbrott begåtts finns någon allmän reklamationsskyldighet i svensk rätt. Om neutral reklamation eller specialreklamation avseende hävning, skadestånd eller naturafullgörelse krävs behandlas även.

För att definiera reklamationsinstitutet behandlas passivitetsregler och preskription, som är till reklamation näraliggande institut eftersom de alla medför rättsverkningar efter viss tids passivitet. Reglerna kan sägas komplettera varandra. Preskriptionsreglerna föreskriver den sista tidpunkten för när anspråk får framställas. Passivitetsreglerna ger stöd för att efter viss tids passivitet kan subjektiva insikter på den avtalsbrytande partens sida ge upphov till verkningar. Reklamation berör istället frågan om aktivitet krävs baserat på objektiva omständigheter. Reklamation kan dock utgöra ett avbrott som innebär att passivitetsverkningar inte inträder.

Reklamationsplikt kan finnas genom att analogier till näraliggande lagstiftning kan företas om det anses vara lämpligt. Försiktighet är dock påkallad, eftersom reklamationsreglerna medför upphävande av rättigheter.

I studerad lagstiftning om reklamation framträder inte någon enhetlig reklamationsskyldighet. I vissa fall är avtalsbrottet avgörande för reklamationsfrågan och i vissa fall vilken påföljd som görs gällande. Inte heller reklamationstypen är likadant reglerad. I praxis och doktrin framträder en splittrad bild. Vissa mönster kan dock utläsas. Finns en lojalitetsplikt i ett avtalsförhållande kan den leda till att meddelande om avtalsbrott krävs. Även skadebegränsningsprincipen kan medföra ett sådant krav. Neutral reklamation kan krävas vid avtalsbrott som den avtalsbrytande parten typiskt sett saknar kännedom om, för att göra parten uppmärksam på avtalsbrottet. Hävningsreklamation samt reklamation avseende naturafullgörelse måste som huvudregel avges. Om det för parterna står klart att avtalet ska upphöra krävs inte hävningsreklamation, men däremot skadeståndsreklamation om den påföljden görs gällande. Skadeståndsreklamation krävs som utgångspunkt, men behövs inte om den avtalsbrytande parten ändå kan räkna med att skadeståndskrav kan komma att ställas. Reklamationsskyldighet kan sägas uppfylla ett flertal syften och funktioner och den mest ändamålsenliga reklamationsplikten för varje avtalsförhållande kan konstrueras med hjälp av dem. De gör sig gällande med olika styrka i varje avtalsförhållande. Omfattningen av reklamationsplikten och rättsverkan vid försummad reklamation samspelar även med frågan om en allmän reklamationsskyldighet. Lagstiftning eller rättspraxis som klargör förhållandena är enligt min mening önskvärt. (Less)
Abstract
This essay examines if there can be found any support for that it is an obligation in the areas not regulated by law to notify the breaching party of the breach of contract. Whether neutral or special notification regarding cancelling, damages or performance is required is also discussed.

To define the institute of notification, the rules concerning inactivity and statutory time limitations are treated. They are closely related to the rules of notification since they all can result in losses of legal rights after a certain period of inactivity, and they complement each other. Statutory time limitations determine the limit for when claims can be put forward. After a period of inactivity, the breaching party’s subjective insights can... (More)
This essay examines if there can be found any support for that it is an obligation in the areas not regulated by law to notify the breaching party of the breach of contract. Whether neutral or special notification regarding cancelling, damages or performance is required is also discussed.

To define the institute of notification, the rules concerning inactivity and statutory time limitations are treated. They are closely related to the rules of notification since they all can result in losses of legal rights after a certain period of inactivity, and they complement each other. Statutory time limitations determine the limit for when claims can be put forward. After a period of inactivity, the breaching party’s subjective insights can lead to legal consequences based on the rules of inactivity. The rules of notification instead focus on whether actions are needed based on objective circumstances. They can, however, disable legal losses due to inactivity from arriving by providing a break in the period of inactivity.

Notification can be required through analogies, if appropriate, to laws which regulate areas similar to the contractual relationship. A certain degree of caution is however called for, since the rules of notification can result in losses of legal rights.

Notification is not uniformly regulated in the statues studied. In some cases, the type of breach of contract determines the question, whereas in others it is instead the sanction that is sought that decides. Which kind of notification required is not either regulated in the same way. Case law and doctrine does not provide for a unanimous answer. Certain patterns may however be discerned. Both the principle of loyalty and of damage limitation can require a type of notice. Breaches that the breaching party typically lacks knowledge of can require neutral notification. Notice of cancellation and of performance may be required. Notice of cancellation is however not required if it is clear that the contractual relationship will cease. In that case, notice of damages instead needs to be put forward. Notice of damages is principally required, unless the breaching party independent of the notification can expect that claims of damages will be put forward. Requiring notification can fulfill a number of purposes and functions, and the rule most suitable for each contractual relationship can be constructed by them. They differ in strength depending on the contractual relationship. The extent of the notification required and the legal effect of not notifying the breaching party interact with the question of a general principle of notification. Legislation or case law that clarifies the conditions is desirable. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nikolai, Elsa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Rules of notification in the areas not regulated by law
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Civilrätt (en. private law), förmögenhetsrätt.
language
Swedish
id
3799775
date added to LUP
2013-06-13 15:38:00
date last changed
2013-06-13 15:38:00
@misc{3799775,
  abstract     = {This essay examines if there can be found any support for that it is an obligation in the areas not regulated by law to notify the breaching party of the breach of contract. Whether neutral or special notification regarding cancelling, damages or performance is required is also discussed. 

To define the institute of notification, the rules concerning inactivity and statutory time limitations are treated. They are closely related to the rules of notification since they all can result in losses of legal rights after a certain period of inactivity, and they complement each other. Statutory time limitations determine the limit for when claims can be put forward. After a period of inactivity, the breaching party’s subjective insights can lead to legal consequences based on the rules of inactivity. The rules of notification instead focus on whether actions are needed based on objective circumstances. They can, however, disable legal losses due to inactivity from arriving by providing a break in the period of inactivity.

Notification can be required through analogies, if appropriate, to laws which regulate areas similar to the contractual relationship. A certain degree of caution is however called for, since the rules of notification can result in losses of legal rights.

Notification is not uniformly regulated in the statues studied. In some cases, the type of breach of contract determines the question, whereas in others it is instead the sanction that is sought that decides. Which kind of notification required is not either regulated in the same way. Case law and doctrine does not provide for a unanimous answer. Certain patterns may however be discerned. Both the principle of loyalty and of damage limitation can require a type of notice. Breaches that the breaching party typically lacks knowledge of can require neutral notification. Notice of cancellation and of performance may be required. Notice of cancellation is however not required if it is clear that the contractual relationship will cease. In that case, notice of damages instead needs to be put forward. Notice of damages is principally required, unless the breaching party independent of the notification can expect that claims of damages will be put forward. Requiring notification can fulfill a number of purposes and functions, and the rule most suitable for each contractual relationship can be constructed by them. They differ in strength depending on the contractual relationship. The extent of the notification required and the legal effect of not notifying the breaching party interact with the question of a general principle of notification. Legislation or case law that clarifies the conditions is desirable.},
  author       = {Nikolai, Elsa},
  keyword      = {Civilrätt (en. private law),förmögenhetsrätt.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Allmän reklamationsplikt utanför det lagreglerade området},
  year         = {2013},
}