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Bedömningen kring allvarligt psykiskt störda lagöverträdares straffansvar och det rättspsykiatriska vårdbehovet

Jansson, Eva LU (2013) LAGF03 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Straffrättslig särbehandling av psykiskt störda lagöverträdare har funnits i alla tider. Bedömningen kring det straffrättsliga ansvaret är en komplicerad process och blir ännu mer problematisk om brottet begåtts under påverkan av ett avvikande psykiskt tillstånd. Enligt den svenska lagstiftningen kan alla personer anses ha förövat brott. Ur denna aspekt är Sverige tämligen unikt då det i andra länder krävs att gärningsmannen ska anses som tillräknelig för att aktualisera ansvar. Den svenska särbehandlingen sker istället vid påföljdsbestämningen, där den som lider av en allvarlig psykisk störning inte kan dömas till fängelse om inte särskilda skäl föreligger.
Bedömningen huruvida gärningsmannens tillstånd utgör en... (More)
Sammanfattning
Straffrättslig särbehandling av psykiskt störda lagöverträdare har funnits i alla tider. Bedömningen kring det straffrättsliga ansvaret är en komplicerad process och blir ännu mer problematisk om brottet begåtts under påverkan av ett avvikande psykiskt tillstånd. Enligt den svenska lagstiftningen kan alla personer anses ha förövat brott. Ur denna aspekt är Sverige tämligen unikt då det i andra länder krävs att gärningsmannen ska anses som tillräknelig för att aktualisera ansvar. Den svenska särbehandlingen sker istället vid påföljdsbestämningen, där den som lider av en allvarlig psykisk störning inte kan dömas till fängelse om inte särskilda skäl föreligger.
Bedömningen huruvida gärningsmannens tillstånd utgör en allvarlig psykisk störning bestäms utifrån den juridiska definitionen. Rätten inhämtar medicinska utlåtanden från rättspsykiatrin, och eventuellt yttrande från Socialstyrelsen, som sedan används som underlag vid bedömningen. Domstolen blir emellertid aldrig bunden av de medicinska utlåtandena. Frågan är om domstolens juridiska bedömning riskerar att "ta över" den medicinska och förhindrar att vissa personer får den vård de behöver. Vissa former av allvarliga psykiska tillstånd, vilka inte omfattas av den juridiska definitionen, kan ibland hamna "i kläm" och medföra straffrättsligt ansvar samt olämpliga påföljder för den enskilde. Vidare kan risken för återfall leda till oproportionerligt långa vårdtider inom rättspsykiatrin.
I den straffrättsliga hanteringen av psykiskt störda lagöverträdare finns idag en del luckor och problem, vilka har medfört ett behov av reform. Det har bland annat lagts fram förslag på att kravet på tillräknelighet åter ska gälla i svensk rätt, att vårdbehovet bör beaktas i större utsträckning samt att möjligheten att besluta om rättsliga skyddsåtgärder ska införas.
Dessa förslag kan till viss del motverka de brister som finns idag. Förhoppningsvis kommer personer som idag riskerar olämpliga påföljder att i större utsträckning få sitt personliga behov av behandling eller andra åtgärder tillgodosedda. Den nya möjligheten till ingripanden i de fall där gärningsmannen kan vara farlig bidrar även till samhällsskyddet. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
Judicial consideration in criminal law of mentally disordered offenders has existed throughout history. The assessment regarding the criminal liability of a person is a complicated process and becomes even more problematic if the offense was committed during an abnormal or permanent mental disorder.
Under Swedish law, all persons are deemed to have the capability to commit a crime. Sweden is rather unique regarding this aspect, because in other countries it is required that the offender should be considered sane to actualize responsibility. In Sweden, considerations are to take place at the actual sentencing, if the person suffers from a serious mental disorder they cannot be sentenced to imprisonment unless there is a special... (More)
Summary
Judicial consideration in criminal law of mentally disordered offenders has existed throughout history. The assessment regarding the criminal liability of a person is a complicated process and becomes even more problematic if the offense was committed during an abnormal or permanent mental disorder.
Under Swedish law, all persons are deemed to have the capability to commit a crime. Sweden is rather unique regarding this aspect, because in other countries it is required that the offender should be considered sane to actualize responsibility. In Sweden, considerations are to take place at the actual sentencing, if the person suffers from a serious mental disorder they cannot be sentenced to imprisonment unless there is a special cause to do so.
An assessment of whether the offender has a serious mental disorder is determined by the legal definition. The Court obtain medical opinions from forensic psychiatry, and possibly an opinion from the National Board of Health and Welfare, which is used as the foundation for the assessment. The court will, however, not be bound by any medical advice.
The question is whether the Court's legal assessment is likely to "take over" the medical assessment thus preventing some people to get the care they need. Some forms of serious mental conditions, which are not covered by the legal definition, can sometimes end up "trapped" which constitutes a criminal offense and inappropriate sanctions for the individual. Furthermore, the risk of relapse could result in a disproportionately long period of hospitalization in forensic psychiatry.
In the penal management of mentally disordered offenders there are currently some gaps and problems, which have resulted in a need for reform. Some proposals that the requirement for sanity shall reintroduces to Swedish law, and the need for treatment should be given greater consideration as well as the ability to decide of the legal safeguards ought to be introduced.
These suggestions may partly counteract the deficiencies that exist today. Hopefully people that today risk unsuitable penalties a greater extent to get their personal need for treatment or other measures satisfied. The new possibility of intervention, in cases where the offender can be dangerous also contributes to social welfare. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Jansson, Eva LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20131
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt Criminal law Uppsåt Straffansvar Psykiskt störda lagöverträdare Tillräknelighet Fängelseförbud Påföljd Rättspsykiatrisk undersökning Rättspsykiatrisk vård Utskrivningsprövning
language
Swedish
id
3800415
date added to LUP
2013-09-11 14:13:52
date last changed
2013-09-11 14:13:52
@misc{3800415,
  abstract     = {Summary
Judicial consideration in criminal law of mentally disordered offenders has existed throughout history. The assessment regarding the criminal liability of a person is a complicated process and becomes even more problematic if the offense was committed during an abnormal or permanent mental disorder. 
Under Swedish law, all persons are deemed to have the capability to commit a crime. Sweden is rather unique regarding this aspect, because in other countries it is required that the offender should be considered sane to actualize responsibility. In Sweden, considerations are to take place at the actual sentencing, if the person suffers from a serious mental disorder they cannot be sentenced to imprisonment unless there is a special cause to do so. 
An assessment of whether the offender has a serious mental disorder is determined by the legal definition. The Court obtain medical opinions from forensic psychiatry, and possibly an opinion from the National Board of Health and Welfare, which is used as the foundation for the assessment. The court will, however, not be bound by any medical advice.
The question is whether the Court's legal assessment is likely to "take over" the medical assessment thus preventing some people to get the care they need. Some forms of serious mental conditions, which are not covered by the legal definition, can sometimes end up "trapped" which constitutes a criminal offense and inappropriate sanctions for the individual. Furthermore, the risk of relapse could result in a disproportionately long period of hospitalization in forensic psychiatry. 
In the penal management of mentally disordered offenders there are currently some gaps and problems, which have resulted in a need for reform. Some proposals that the requirement for sanity shall reintroduces to Swedish law, and the need for treatment should be given greater consideration as well as the ability to decide of the legal safeguards ought to be introduced. 
These suggestions may partly counteract the deficiencies that exist today. Hopefully people that today risk unsuitable penalties a greater extent to get their personal need for treatment or other measures satisfied. The new possibility of intervention, in cases where the offender can be dangerous also contributes to social welfare.},
  author       = {Jansson, Eva},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt Criminal law Uppsåt Straffansvar Psykiskt störda lagöverträdare Tillräknelighet Fängelseförbud Påföljd Rättspsykiatrisk undersökning Rättspsykiatrisk vård Utskrivningsprövning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bedömningen kring allvarligt psykiskt störda lagöverträdares straffansvar och det rättspsykiatriska vårdbehovet},
  year         = {2013},
}