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Vårdperspektivet vid påföljdsbestämning för unga lagöverträdare - En komparativ studie av svensk och dansk rätt

Hau, Amanda LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Ungdomsbrottslighet och hur unga lagöverträdare bör hanteras och behandlas är en ständigt aktuell fråga. Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en sammanfattande bild av hur vårdbehovet hos unga lagöverträdare påverkar påföljdsbestämningen och vad vården består av vid de olika straffrättsliga påföljderna. Behandlingsinsatserna som företas i samband med de olika straffrättsliga påföljderna är relativt liknande oavsett om det rör sig om ungdomsvård, sluten ungdomsvård eller fängelse. Skillnaden är omfattningen av insatserna samt det faktum att medan ungdomens vårdbehov tillmäts stor betydelse vid val av ungdomsvård är det istället vid verkställigheten av sluten ungdomsvård som den unges vårdbehov får avgörande betydelse.

För... (More)
Ungdomsbrottslighet och hur unga lagöverträdare bör hanteras och behandlas är en ständigt aktuell fråga. Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en sammanfattande bild av hur vårdbehovet hos unga lagöverträdare påverkar påföljdsbestämningen och vad vården består av vid de olika straffrättsliga påföljderna. Behandlingsinsatserna som företas i samband med de olika straffrättsliga påföljderna är relativt liknande oavsett om det rör sig om ungdomsvård, sluten ungdomsvård eller fängelse. Skillnaden är omfattningen av insatserna samt det faktum att medan ungdomens vårdbehov tillmäts stor betydelse vid val av ungdomsvård är det istället vid verkställigheten av sluten ungdomsvård som den unges vårdbehov får avgörande betydelse.

För att få en mer nyanserad bild av den svenska lagstiftningen, har det i uppsatsen även genomförts en jämförelse med den danska lagstiftningen inom området. Jämfört med Sverige har Danmark upplevt en liknande minskning av ungdomskriminalitet de senaste åren. Liknande principer och syften har även styrt de danska reformer avseende ungdomspåföljder. Exempelvis är huvudregeln både i Sverige och i Danmark att unga under arton år i största möjliga mån bör hållas utanför anstalterna och inom de sociala myndigheterna regi. När det gäller de specifika påföljderna i sig skiljer de sig emellertid till viss del mellan länderna, antingen till själva utformningen av dem eller till graden de tillämpas. Medan ungdomstjänst numera är den vanligaste ungdomspåföljden bland dem som döms i domstol i Sverige, används det danska samfundstjeneste relativt sällan i förhållande till ungdomar. Danmarks ungdomssanktion är en påföljd utan en exakt motsvarighet i Sverige där vårdperspektivet tar väldigt stor plats. Ungdomssanktion kan vara intressant att studera närmare eftersom det saknas en motsvarighet till påföljden i det svenska systemet. Även utformningen av de danska ungdomskontrakten är av intresse eftersom de i Danmark används som självständiga påföljder medan de svenska ungdomskontrakten endast utgör ett alternativ till en vårdplan.

Det svenska påföljdssystemet för unga lagöverträdare ska präglas av proportionalitet, konsekvens och förutsägbarhet samt uppfylla barnkonventionens krav på att hänsyn till barnets bästa ska tas. Samtidigt ska ungdomspåföljderna anpassas till den unges behov och vara tydliga och pedagogiska. Ungdomsbrottslighet ska motverkas samtidigt som ungdomens hela situation och sociala utsatthet ska beaktas. Föreningen av alla dessa principer och målsättningar leder till problematiska områden och en ibland otydlig lagstiftning. De största problemen berör regleringen av ungdomsvård. Riktlinjer för både domstolen och socialtjänsten saknas avseende vad som ska anses utgör ett ”särskilt” vårdbehov och det fattas närmare anvisningar i förarbetena angående hur och när ungdomsvård ska anses vara en tillräckligt ingripande åtgärd. Bristen på riktlinjer försvårar genomförandet av en tillfredställande proportionalitetsbedömning vid påföljdsbestämning. Bedömningen av unga lagöverträdares behov av vård skiljer sig åt från kommun till kommun. Detta har i sin tur lett till en spretig och oförutsägbar rättstillämpning eftersom domstolen ofta grundar sitt beslut på socialnämndens bedömning och det därför uppstår lokala skillnader i hur domstolarna dömer. En rättssäker likabehandling riskerar att hotas.

En framtida ordning skulle ha nytta av att lagstiftaren tog ett ställningstagande och klargjorde vilken princip eller grundtanke bör väga tyngst när det gäller hanteringen av unga lagöverträdare. Riktlinjer bör skapas för att ge domstolarna underlag att bedöma vad som avses utgöra ett särskilt vårdbehov. Begreppet borde definieras och definitionen måste vara lika inom både socialtjänsten och domstolen. Det vore önskvärt om kriterier fastställs avseende vad som tillsammans eller var för sig kan utgöra ett ”särskilt behov av vård eller andra åtgärder” i lagens mening. Sverige skulle vidare kunna ta lärdom av vissa delar av det danska systemet eftersom vårdperspektivet i Danmark utgör en viktig aspekt av påföljdssystemet. Hanteringen av unga som begår brott är emellertid en mycket komplicerad fråga som kräver att hänsyn tas till en mängd olika faktorer, och det är svårt att föreställa sig en perfekt ordning. Icke desto mindre är det viktigt att fortsätta studera, jämföra, utvärdera och ifrågasätta hanteringen av unga lagöverträdare eftersom det är ett rättsområde där de bakomliggande principerna hela tiden ändras och utvecklas. (Less)
Abstract
Juvenile delinquency and how young offenders ought to be treated are issues that are discussed continuously. The overall purpose of this paper is to provide a representative picture of how young offenders’ need of treatment and care affects which sanction is sentenced. Another aim has been to examine the type of treatment that each sanction entails. The various types of care and treatment are relatively similar regardless of if the sanction in question is youth care, closed youth care or a prison sentence. The difference lies in the scope of the actions taken and the fact that while the juvenile’s need of care is of great importance when deciding on a sentence to youth care, the significance of the juvenile’s need of care instead becomes... (More)
Juvenile delinquency and how young offenders ought to be treated are issues that are discussed continuously. The overall purpose of this paper is to provide a representative picture of how young offenders’ need of treatment and care affects which sanction is sentenced. Another aim has been to examine the type of treatment that each sanction entails. The various types of care and treatment are relatively similar regardless of if the sanction in question is youth care, closed youth care or a prison sentence. The difference lies in the scope of the actions taken and the fact that while the juvenile’s need of care is of great importance when deciding on a sentence to youth care, the significance of the juvenile’s need of care instead becomes essential during the enforcement of closed youth care.

In order to provide a more thorough picture of the Swedish legislation, the paper also contains a comparative study of the Danish youth legislation system. Similarly to Sweden, Denmark has experienced a decrease in youth crime rates during the last couple of years. Similar principles and policies have also driven the Danish reforms concerning juvenile sanctions. An example is the similar general rule that juveniles under the age of eighteen ought to be kept away from the prisons as often as possible and instead be placed under the care of the social authorities. Regarding the particular sanctions more specifically, there is a difference between the two countries, concerning either how the sanctions are actually constructed, or to what extent they are applied. Community service is rarely used for young offenders in Denmark whereas it is the most common penalty for juveniles in Sweden. The Danish “youth sanction” is a penalty that lacks a precise Swedish equivalent where the care and treatment perspective is of great importance. The youth sanction is of interest to study further since there is no real equivalent in the Swedish system. Other interesting aspects of the Danish system to look closer at are the youth contracts, since they are used as an independent sanction in Denmark whereas the Swedish youth contracts simply exist as an alternative to a traditional care plan.

The Swedish legal system concerning young offenders must be characterised by proportionality, consistency and predictability and also meet the requirements set by the CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child). The juvenile sanctions must be adapted to the young person’s needs and also be clear and pedagogical. Juvenile delinquency has to be prevented while the juvenile’s situation and social vulnerability at the same time must be taken into consideration. Combining all of these principles and objectives can be difficult and at times result in an unclear legislation. The main problems concern the regulation behind the sanction youth care. Guidelines for both the court and the social authorities are lacking regarding what precisely is meant to constitute a “particular” or “special” need of care and detailed instructions in the legislation’s preparatory work as to how and when youth care is a sufficient penalty are deficient. The lack of guidelines prevents a satisfactory assessment of proportionality to be made when determining a penalty. The evaluation of the juveniles’ need of care differ from municipality to municipality. This has led to a varying and unpredictable application of the law since the courts often base decisions on the assessments made be the social authorities and local differences therefore occur throughout the country. The legal certainty of equal treatment may be threatened.

A future system would benefit from the legislator taking a standpoint and making clear which principle or objective should be the primary consideration with regards to young offenders. Guidelines ought to be created in order to provide the court with a basis on which to evaluate what is considered to constitute a “particular” need of care. The concept ought to be defined and the definition must be the same within both the courts and the social authorities. It would be desirable if criteria were set in regards to what, together or separately, may constitute “a particular need of care or other measures” in the legal sense. Sweden could benefit from studying parts of the Danish system since the care and treatment perspective not only in Sweden but also in Denmark constitutes an important aspect of the youth legislation. However, the handling of juvenile offenders is a very complex issue that requires taking into account a variety of factors, and it is difficult to imagine a perfect legislation on the area. Nevertheless, it is of importance to continue to study, compare, evaluate and question the handling of young offenders since it is an area of legislation where the underlying principles constantly change and evolve. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hau, Amanda LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Treatment Perspective in Determination of Penalties for Juvenile Offenders - A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Law
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, komparativ rätt, unga lagöverträdare, vårdperspektiv, påföljdsbestämning
language
Swedish
id
3801027
date added to LUP
2013-06-13 15:22:42
date last changed
2013-06-13 15:22:42
@misc{3801027,
  abstract     = {Juvenile delinquency and how young offenders ought to be treated are issues that are discussed continuously. The overall purpose of this paper is to provide a representative picture of how young offenders’ need of treatment and care affects which sanction is sentenced. Another aim has been to examine the type of treatment that each sanction entails. The various types of care and treatment are relatively similar regardless of if the sanction in question is youth care, closed youth care or a prison sentence. The difference lies in the scope of the actions taken and the fact that while the juvenile’s need of care is of great importance when deciding on a sentence to youth care, the significance of the juvenile’s need of care instead becomes essential during the enforcement of closed youth care.

In order to provide a more thorough picture of the Swedish legislation, the paper also contains a comparative study of the Danish youth legislation system. Similarly to Sweden, Denmark has experienced a decrease in youth crime rates during the last couple of years. Similar principles and policies have also driven the Danish reforms concerning juvenile sanctions. An example is the similar general rule that juveniles under the age of eighteen ought to be kept away from the prisons as often as possible and instead be placed under the care of the social authorities. Regarding the particular sanctions more specifically, there is a difference between the two countries, concerning either how the sanctions are actually constructed, or to what extent they are applied. Community service is rarely used for young offenders in Denmark whereas it is the most common penalty for juveniles in Sweden. The Danish “youth sanction” is a penalty that lacks a precise Swedish equivalent where the care and treatment perspective is of great importance. The youth sanction is of interest to study further since there is no real equivalent in the Swedish system. Other interesting aspects of the Danish system to look closer at are the youth contracts, since they are used as an independent sanction in Denmark whereas the Swedish youth contracts simply exist as an alternative to a traditional care plan. 	

The Swedish legal system concerning young offenders must be characterised by proportionality, consistency and predictability and also meet the requirements set by the CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child). The juvenile sanctions must be adapted to the young person’s needs and also be clear and pedagogical. Juvenile delinquency has to be prevented while the juvenile’s situation and social vulnerability at the same time must be taken into consideration. Combining all of these principles and objectives can be difficult and at times result in an unclear legislation. The main problems concern the regulation behind the sanction youth care. Guidelines for both the court and the social authorities are lacking regarding what precisely is meant to constitute a “particular” or “special” need of care and detailed instructions in the legislation’s preparatory work as to how and when youth care is a sufficient penalty are deficient. The lack of guidelines prevents a satisfactory assessment of proportionality to be made when determining a penalty. The evaluation of the juveniles’ need of care differ from municipality to municipality. This has led to a varying and unpredictable application of the law since the courts often base decisions on the assessments made be the social authorities and local differences therefore occur throughout the country. The legal certainty of equal treatment may be threatened. 

A future system would benefit from the legislator taking a standpoint and making clear which principle or objective should be the primary consideration with regards to young offenders. Guidelines ought to be created in order to provide the court with a basis on which to evaluate what is considered to constitute a “particular” need of care. The concept ought to be defined and the definition must be the same within both the courts and the social authorities. It would be desirable if criteria were set in regards to what, together or separately, may constitute “a particular need of care or other measures” in the legal sense. Sweden could benefit from studying parts of the Danish system since the care and treatment perspective not only in Sweden but also in Denmark constitutes an important aspect of the youth legislation. However, the handling of juvenile offenders is a very complex issue that requires taking into account a variety of factors, and it is difficult to imagine a perfect legislation on the area. Nevertheless, it is of importance to continue to study, compare, evaluate and question the handling of young offenders since it is an area of legislation where the underlying principles constantly change and evolve.},
  author       = {Hau, Amanda},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,komparativ rätt,unga lagöverträdare,vårdperspektiv,påföljdsbestämning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vårdperspektivet vid påföljdsbestämning för unga lagöverträdare - En komparativ studie av svensk och dansk rätt},
  year         = {2013},
}