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Bedömningen av barnets bästa i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge när det har förekommit våld i hemmet

Inci, Rozalin LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur våld, riktad mot någon annan familjemedlem än barnet, påverkar bedömningen av barnets bästa i frågor om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Denna fråga inkluderar avvägningen mellan frågor om vårdnad, boende samt barnets rätt till umgänge med en förälder å ena sidan, och den våldutsatta kvinnans rätt till skydd å andra sidan. Det handlar alltså inte bara om barnets upplevelse av våldet som sådant. Med våld mot annan familjemedlem än barnet avses, i förevarande studie, våld mot mamman.
Utgångspunkten i svensk rätt är att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Föräldrabalkens regler bygger på uppfattningen om gemensamt föräldraansvar och att det... (More)
Sammanfattning
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur våld, riktad mot någon annan familjemedlem än barnet, påverkar bedömningen av barnets bästa i frågor om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Denna fråga inkluderar avvägningen mellan frågor om vårdnad, boende samt barnets rätt till umgänge med en förälder å ena sidan, och den våldutsatta kvinnans rätt till skydd å andra sidan. Det handlar alltså inte bara om barnets upplevelse av våldet som sådant. Med våld mot annan familjemedlem än barnet avses, i förevarande studie, våld mot mamman.
Utgångspunkten i svensk rätt är att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Föräldrabalkens regler bygger på uppfattningen om gemensamt föräldraansvar och att det i de allra flesta fall är bäst för barnet att ha en nära och god kontakt med båda sina föräldrar. Barnets rätt till båda sina föräldrar får dock inte innebära att barnet riskerar att fara illa. Vid bedömningen av vad som är bäst för barnet ska fästas avseende särskilt vid risken för att barnet eller någon annan i familjen utsätts för övergrepp eller annars far illa. När det i ett mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge framkommer uppgifter om våld i familjen ska en riskbedömning göras. I dessa situationer är det domstolens respektive socialnämndens antaganden och bedömningar som blir avgörande.
Avsaknaden av en tydlig definition av begreppet barnets bästa kan medföra tolkningar som bygger på presumtioner om vad som i allmänhet är bra för barn. Detta utan att en närmare precisering av vad barnets bästa för det enskilda barnet innebär. Resultatet från intervjuerna visar att ett påstående om att ett barn har bevittnat våld mot en närstående vuxen vägs in i bedömningen, om övergreppen har varit allvarliga och i en sådan omfattning att barnet uppenbarligen riskerar att fara illa. Avvägningen mellan barnets behov av en nära och god kontakt med båda sina föräldrar och risken för att barnet far illa synes vara svår att göra. I en del fall kan domstolen göra bedömningen att vårdnaden ska tillerkännas en förälder ensam, medan i andra fall kan bedömningen göras att gemensam vårdnad och umgänge ändå är bäst för barnet. Det förefaller oklart hur förekomsten av våld i familjen påverkar utgången i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge.
En annan fråga som aktualiseras i samband med bedömningen av barnets bästa i vårdnads- och umgängestvister är hur avvägningen mellan kvinnans rätt till skydd och frågan om barnets behov av en nära och god kontakt med båda sida föräldrar görs. Resultatet från intervjuerna med domare visar att avvägningen mellan dessa två frågor är svår att göra. Ett beslut om gemensam vårdnad och umgänge i en situation där mamman och barnet har ett skyddsbehov påverkar levnadsförhållandena för dem. Detta inte minst på grund av att den rättsliga vårdnaden om barnet innebär gemensam bestämmanderätt i frågor som rör barnet. Likaså är barnets umgängesrätt förenad med risk för att umgängesföräldern får reda på var barnet och mamman befinner sig. Frågorna är komplexa och måste avgöras efter en noggrann bedömning av omständigheterna i det enskilda fallet. Det går dock inte att skilja den ena frågan från den andra. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
The aim of this study is to examine how violence against a member of the family other than the child, is affecting the assessment of the child's best interests in matters of legal custody, residence and access. This issue includes questions about legal custody, residence and the child's right to access to a parent on the one hand and the abused woman's right to protection on the other. When using violence against another member of the family than the child this study refers to the mother.
The basis of Swedish law is that the child's best interests must be the basis for all decisions on legal custody, residence and access. The Children and Parents’ Code is based on the concept of joint parental responsibility and the fact that it... (More)
Summary
The aim of this study is to examine how violence against a member of the family other than the child, is affecting the assessment of the child's best interests in matters of legal custody, residence and access. This issue includes questions about legal custody, residence and the child's right to access to a parent on the one hand and the abused woman's right to protection on the other. When using violence against another member of the family than the child this study refers to the mother.
The basis of Swedish law is that the child's best interests must be the basis for all decisions on legal custody, residence and access. The Children and Parents’ Code is based on the concept of joint parental responsibility and the fact that it in most cases is considered best for the child to have a good and close contact with both parents. An exception for the child's right to both parents is to be made when the child is at risk of being abused or mistreated. In considering what is best for the child allowance shall be paid to the risk of the child or another family member being abused or otherwise mistreated. If there are reports that indicate domestic violence, in a cases concerning legal custody, residence and access, a risk assessment have to be done. In these situations it is the courts’ as well as the Social Welfare Boards’ assessments which are crucial.
The absence of a clear definition of the best interests of the child may lead to an interpretation based on presumptions of what is generally good for children. This is without a detailed specification of what the best interests of the individual child implies. The results of the interviews show that if a child has witnessed violence towards a related adult this is weighed into the determination of whether the abuse has been serious enough to obviously put the child in the risk zone. The balance between the child's need for a good, close contact with both parents and the risk of living with violence seem to be difficult. In some cases, the court may take the view that legal custody be granted to one parent alone, while in other cases it can be judged that joint legal custody and access is still best for the child. It seems unclear how the prevalence of family violence affects the outcome of disputes concerning legal custody, residence and access.
Another issue that arises in the context of assessing the best interests of the child in legal custody and access disputes, is how the balance between the woman's right to protection on the one hand and the question of the child's need for a good, close contact with both parents on the other. The results from the interviews that in this study was conducted with judges shows that the balance between these two issues is difficult. However these issues rarely cause practical problems. A decision on joint legal custody and access in a situation where the mother and the child have a need for protection affects the living conditions for them. This is not least due to the legal custody meaning joint control in matters affecting the child. At the same time child access rights are associated with the risk that the noncustodial parent can find out where the child and mother live. The issues are complex and must be determined after a careful assessment of the circumstances in the individual case. It is not possible to differentiate one issue from another. (Less)
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author
Inci, Rozalin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Assessment of the childs´ best interests in matters of legal custody, residence and access when there has been domestic violence
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
vårdnad, umgänge, barnets bästa, barn som har bevittnat våld.
language
Swedish
id
3957500
date added to LUP
2013-09-26 13:15:50
date last changed
2013-09-26 13:15:50
@misc{3957500,
  abstract     = {Summary
The aim of this study is to examine how violence against a member of the family other than the child, is affecting the assessment of the child's best interests in matters of legal custody, residence and access. This issue includes questions about legal custody, residence and the child's right to access to a parent on the one hand and the abused woman's right to protection on the other. When using violence against another member of the family than the child this study refers to the mother.
The basis of Swedish law is that the child's best interests must be the basis for all decisions on legal custody, residence and access. The Children and Parents’ Code is based on the concept of joint parental responsibility and the fact that it in most cases is considered best for the child to have a good and close contact with both parents. An exception for the child's right to both parents is to be made when the child is at risk of being abused or mistreated. In considering what is best for the child allowance shall be paid to the risk of the child or another family member being abused or otherwise mistreated. If there are reports that indicate domestic violence, in a cases concerning legal custody, residence and access, a risk assessment have to be done. In these situations it is the courts’ as well as the Social Welfare Boards’ assessments which are crucial.
The absence of a clear definition of the best interests of the child may lead to an interpretation based on presumptions of what is generally good for children. This is without a detailed specification of what the best interests of the individual child implies. The results of the interviews show that if a child has witnessed violence towards a related adult this is weighed into the determination of whether the abuse has been serious enough to obviously put the child in the risk zone. The balance between the child's need for a good, close contact with both parents and the risk of living with violence seem to be difficult. In some cases, the court may take the view that legal custody be granted to one parent alone, while in other cases it can be judged that joint legal custody and access is still best for the child. It seems unclear how the prevalence of family violence affects the outcome of disputes concerning legal custody, residence and access.
Another issue that arises in the context of assessing the best interests of the child in legal custody and access disputes, is how the balance between the woman's right to protection on the one hand and the question of the child's need for a good, close contact with both parents on the other. The results from the interviews that in this study was conducted with judges shows that the balance between these two issues is difficult. However these issues rarely cause practical problems. A decision on joint legal custody and access in a situation where the mother and the child have a need for protection affects the living conditions for them. This is not least due to the legal custody meaning joint control in matters affecting the child. At the same time child access rights are associated with the risk that the noncustodial parent can find out where the child and mother live. The issues are complex and must be determined after a careful assessment of the circumstances in the individual case. It is not possible to differentiate one issue from another.},
  author       = {Inci, Rozalin},
  keyword      = {vårdnad,umgänge,barnets bästa,barn som har bevittnat våld.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Bedömningen av barnets bästa i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge när det har förekommit våld i hemmet},
  year         = {2013},
}