Skip to main content

LUP Student Papers

LUND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

Barns rättigheter och processuella ställning i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge

Hallström, Elisabeth LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge har ökat kraftigt i Sverige under de senaste åren. Detta innebär att allt fler barn årligen involveras i dessa typer av processer. För det enskilda barnet är det viktiga frågor som avgörs och utgången i målet kan få stora och långvariga konsekvenser för såväl barn, som föräldrar.
Barn är, liksom vuxna, bärare av ett stort antal mänskliga rättigheter enligt internationella konventioner. Några av dessa aktualiseras särskilt i tvisterna om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Rättigheterna är bland annat principen om att barnets bästa ska komma i främsta rummet och barnets rätt att komma till tals i frågor som rör barnet. Dessa båda rättigheter finns i artiklar i barnkonventionen.
Syftet med denna... (More)
Tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge har ökat kraftigt i Sverige under de senaste åren. Detta innebär att allt fler barn årligen involveras i dessa typer av processer. För det enskilda barnet är det viktiga frågor som avgörs och utgången i målet kan få stora och långvariga konsekvenser för såväl barn, som föräldrar.
Barn är, liksom vuxna, bärare av ett stort antal mänskliga rättigheter enligt internationella konventioner. Några av dessa aktualiseras särskilt i tvisterna om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Rättigheterna är bland annat principen om att barnets bästa ska komma i främsta rummet och barnets rätt att komma till tals i frågor som rör barnet. Dessa båda rättigheter finns i artiklar i barnkonventionen.
Syftet med denna framställning är att undersöka innehållet i de internationella rättigheter som är särskilt aktuella i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge och därefter göra en jämförelse med den processuella ställning barn har i tvisterna, för att se om den svenska regleringen motsvarar de krav som rättigheterna uppställer. En viss jämförelse med Norge görs också, eftersom regleringen där skiljer sig från den svenska. Slutligen ska frågan, om en talerätt för barn leder till bättre uppfyllelse av barns rättigheter, besvaras. Metoder som används är rättsvetenskaplig och komparativ metod.
Den ovan nämnda rättigheten att barnets bästa, enligt barnkonventionen, ska komma i främsta rummet uppställer i sig inget krav på att barnets ska inta en särskild processuell ställning. Rättigheten innebär att de som har ansvar för barn och de som fattar beslut som rör barn ska beakta barnets bästa. Vad det innebär mer konkret är en bedömningsfråga i varje enskilt fall. FNs barnrättskommitté har dock nyligen utkommit med en allmän kommentar om barnets bästa, av vilken framgår att barn behöver ett juridiskt ombud när barnets bästa ska avgöras.
Enligt barnkonventionen har barnet också en rätt att komma till tals, som nämnts ovan. Det innebär att barn, oavsett ålder, ska få komma till tals i frågor som rör dem och att deras åsikt ska beaktas utifrån ålder och mognad. Att barnet får komma till tals är också en viktig del i uppfyllandet av barnets bästa.
I tvisterna om vårdnad, boende och umgänge har rätten en skyldighet att se till att målet blir tillräckligt utrett. Detta sker bland annat genom att socialnämnd lämnar yttrande, att rätten beslutar om utredning och/eller att berörda barn hörs inför rätten. Det som skiljer Norge från Sverige är att lagstiftningen där innebär att barnet ska få komma till tals från sju års ålder och att stor vikt ska läggas vid barnets inställning från tolv års ålder. I Norge kan barn också få en representant i särskilda fall.
Det är inte nödvändigt med en talerätt för barn för att deras rättigheter ska få bättre uppfyllelse. En juridisk representant som tillvaratar barnets intressen, utan att barnet har talerätt i tvisten, kan på många sätt bidra till bättre uppfyllelse av barnets rättigheter. Detta överensstämmer också med barnrättskommitténs senaste uttalande om barnets bästa. (Less)
Abstract
Disputes concerning custody, residence and contact have increased in Sweden during the last couple of years. This means, that more and more children are involved in these types of processes every year. The questions that are settled have great importance to each child, and the outcome can have major and long-lasting consequences for both children and parents.
Children, as well as adults, are possessors of a great number of human rights according to international conventions. Some of the rights are particularly relevant in the disputes concerning custody, residence and contact. Two of the relevant rights are the right of the child to have his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration and the right of the child to be heard.... (More)
Disputes concerning custody, residence and contact have increased in Sweden during the last couple of years. This means, that more and more children are involved in these types of processes every year. The questions that are settled have great importance to each child, and the outcome can have major and long-lasting consequences for both children and parents.
Children, as well as adults, are possessors of a great number of human rights according to international conventions. Some of the rights are particularly relevant in the disputes concerning custody, residence and contact. Two of the relevant rights are the right of the child to have his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration and the right of the child to be heard. These two rights both originate from the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The purpose with this essay is to study the content in the international rights that are particularly relevant in disputes concerning custody, residence, and contact, and then compare it with the procedural position of children in the disputes, to see if the domestic regulations correspond to the demands raised in the rights. A minor comparison with Norway is also made, because their regulations differ from the Swedish regulations. Finally, there will be given an answer to the question “will children’s rights be better fulfilled if they get a right to litigate in the custody disputes?”. The methods used are jurisprudence and comparative.
The above mentioned right of the child to have his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration, does not require a particular procedural position of children. The convention states that, those who are responsible for children and those who make decisions concerning children are obliged to consider the best interest of the child. A judgmental process is required to determine the child’s best interest in each case. United Nation’s Committee on the Rights of the Child has recently published a general comment concerning the best interest of the child, which states that children need legal representation when their best interest are to be determined by courts.
According to the Convention of the Rights of the Child, children also have the right to be heard, as mentioned above. The convention states that, children who are capable of forming their own views have the right to express themselves in matters that affect them, and their views shall be taken into account in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. The right of the child to be heard is also important for the fulfillment of the right of the child to get his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration.
In the disputes concerning custody, residence and contact the courts are obliged to ensure that every case is sufficiently investigated. Today this is ensured by using statements made by social welfare committees. Furthermore, the court can decide that an investigation should be made, and the court can also decide that the children concerned are to be heard in court. The main difference between Sweden and Norway is that the legislation in Norway states that children are to be heard from the age of seven and that the children’s opinions have great importance from the age of twelve. In Norway the children can also be given a legal representative in special cases.
A right for children to litigate is not necessary for a better fulfillment of the rights of the children. A legal representative looking after the child’s interest, without a right for the child to litigate, can in many ways promote a better fulfillment of the child’s rights. A legal representative for children also agrees with the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s latest statement on the best interest of the child. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hallström, Elisabeth LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Children’s rights and procedural position in disputes concerning custody, residence and contact
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
vårdnadstvist, talerätt, barnets bästa, barnkonventionen, familjerätt, vårdnad
language
Swedish
id
3966718
date added to LUP
2013-09-23 08:30:35
date last changed
2013-09-23 08:30:35
@misc{3966718,
  abstract     = {Disputes concerning custody, residence and contact have increased in Sweden during the last couple of years. This means, that more and more children are involved in these types of processes every year. The questions that are settled have great importance to each child, and the outcome can have major and long-lasting consequences for both children and parents.
Children, as well as adults, are possessors of a great number of human rights according to international conventions. Some of the rights are particularly relevant in the disputes concerning custody, residence and contact. Two of the relevant rights are the right of the child to have his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration and the right of the child to be heard. These two rights both originate from the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The purpose with this essay is to study the content in the international rights that are particularly relevant in disputes concerning custody, residence, and contact, and then compare it with the procedural position of children in the disputes, to see if the domestic regulations correspond to the demands raised in the rights. A minor comparison with Norway is also made, because their regulations differ from the Swedish regulations. Finally, there will be given an answer to the question “will children’s rights be better fulfilled if they get a right to litigate in the custody disputes?”. The methods used are jurisprudence and comparative.
The above mentioned right of the child to have his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration, does not require a particular procedural position of children. The convention states that, those who are responsible for children and those who make decisions concerning children are obliged to consider the best interest of the child. A judgmental process is required to determine the child’s best interest in each case. United Nation’s Committee on the Rights of the Child has recently published a general comment concerning the best interest of the child, which states that children need legal representation when their best interest are to be determined by courts.
According to the Convention of the Rights of the Child, children also have the right to be heard, as mentioned above. The convention states that, children who are capable of forming their own views have the right to express themselves in matters that affect them, and their views shall be taken into account in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. The right of the child to be heard is also important for the fulfillment of the right of the child to get his or her best interest taken as a primary consideration.
In the disputes concerning custody, residence and contact the courts are obliged to ensure that every case is sufficiently investigated. Today this is ensured by using statements made by social welfare committees. Furthermore, the court can decide that an investigation should be made, and the court can also decide that the children concerned are to be heard in court. The main difference between Sweden and Norway is that the legislation in Norway states that children are to be heard from the age of seven and that the children’s opinions have great importance from the age of twelve. In Norway the children can also be given a legal representative in special cases.
A right for children to litigate is not necessary for a better fulfillment of the rights of the children. A legal representative looking after the child’s interest, without a right for the child to litigate, can in many ways promote a better fulfillment of the child’s rights. A legal representative for children also agrees with the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s latest statement on the best interest of the child.},
  author       = {Hallström, Elisabeth},
  keyword      = {vårdnadstvist,talerätt,barnets bästa,barnkonventionen,familjerätt,vårdnad},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barns rättigheter och processuella ställning i tvister om vårdnad, boende och umgänge},
  year         = {2013},
}