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Omyndigas solidariska skadeståndsansvar

Kara, Christi LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Solidariskt ansvar är huvudregeln när flera skadevållare gör sig skyldiga till en och samma skada. Solidariskt skadeståndsansvar innebär att skadelidande kan kräva en av skadevållarna på hela skadeståndsbeloppet som om skadevållaren skulle varit ensam ansvarig. Det krävs att de allmänna förutsättningarna för skadeståndsskyldighet är uppfyllda för var och en av skadevållarna. Den som har blivit krävd på hela skadeståndet har sedan regressrätt mot de övriga ansvariga. Ansvarsfördelningen mellan skadevållarna sker genom en skälighetsbedömning, det presumeras dock att skadeståndet ska delas efter huvudtalet.

Enligt 6 kap. 4 § SkL ska huvudregeln om solidariskt skadeståndsansvar inte tillämpas i de fall någon begränsning i... (More)
Solidariskt ansvar är huvudregeln när flera skadevållare gör sig skyldiga till en och samma skada. Solidariskt skadeståndsansvar innebär att skadelidande kan kräva en av skadevållarna på hela skadeståndsbeloppet som om skadevållaren skulle varit ensam ansvarig. Det krävs att de allmänna förutsättningarna för skadeståndsskyldighet är uppfyllda för var och en av skadevållarna. Den som har blivit krävd på hela skadeståndet har sedan regressrätt mot de övriga ansvariga. Ansvarsfördelningen mellan skadevållarna sker genom en skälighetsbedömning, det presumeras dock att skadeståndet ska delas efter huvudtalet.

Enligt 6 kap. 4 § SkL ska huvudregeln om solidariskt skadeståndsansvar inte tillämpas i de fall någon begränsning i skadeståndsskyldigheten åvilar någon av skadevållarna. Den jämkningsregel som riktar in sig på omyndigas skadeståndsansvar är 2 kap. 4 § SkL. De omständigheter som tas hänsyn till i denna paragraf är skadevållarens ålder samt utveckling, handlingens beskaffenhet, huruvida skadevållaren omfattas av en ansvarsförsäkring, ekonomiska förhållanden och övriga omständigheter. Dessa omständigheter tillämpas i praktiken endast för skadevållare upp till 15 års ålder. Skadevållare mellan 15 och 18 år kan i regel endast åberopa ekonomiska omständigheter vid jämkning av 2 kap. 4 § SkL.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att fastställa gällande rätt för omyndigas solidariska skadeståndsansvar. De frågor som besvaras i arbetet är förutsättningarna för solidariskt ansvar i allmänhet, de omyndigas solidariska ansvar och dess ansvarsfördelning och hur omyndigas jämkningsregel påverkar skadelidande. I slutet av uppsatsen behandlas även de lagförslag som finns på området.

Metoden som används vid arbetet med uppsatsen är en teleologisk tolkningsmetod och i analysen har ändamålet av lagarna diskuterats i ljuset av prevention och reparation. Dessutom har ett de lege ferenda resonemang förts gällande frågan om de lagförslag som finns på området.

De förslag till lagändringar som behandlas i denna uppsats har gemensamt att huvudregeln för det solidariska ansvaret ska undantas för omyndiga skadevållare och istället ska ett delat ansvar vara huvudregeln, oberoende om jämkning sker eller inte. De flesta förslag är inriktade på brottsliga handlingar, vilket enligt uppsatsens slutsatser skulle få ett orimligt resultat.

Slutsatsen i denna uppsats är att delat ansvar ska föreligga för omyndiga skadevållare som huvudregel, oavsett om jämkning sker eller ej. Det ska vara utan betydelse genom vilken skuldgrad skadevållarna begått handlingen. Alla omständigheter i jämkningsregeln för omyndiga ska beaktas upp till 18 års ålder och inte bara upp till 15 års ålder. (Less)
Abstract
Joint and several liability is the general rule in Swedish law when multiple guilty parties are responsible for one together caused damage. Joint and several liability means that the injured party can claim that just one of tortfeasors is held responsible for the entire amount of the damages like as if the tortfeasor was alone responsible for the whole damage. The general conditions for liability have to meet the requirements for each of the tortfeasors. The tortfeasor who is than held responosible for the whole damage than has the right to recourse against the other parties responsible for the damage. Responsibilities in between tortfeasors is decided by a fairness opinion, it is presumed, however, that the damages should be divided after... (More)
Joint and several liability is the general rule in Swedish law when multiple guilty parties are responsible for one together caused damage. Joint and several liability means that the injured party can claim that just one of tortfeasors is held responsible for the entire amount of the damages like as if the tortfeasor was alone responsible for the whole damage. The general conditions for liability have to meet the requirements for each of the tortfeasors. The tortfeasor who is than held responosible for the whole damage than has the right to recourse against the other parties responsible for the damage. Responsibilities in between tortfeasors is decided by a fairness opinion, it is presumed, however, that the damages should be divided after the number of parties responsible for the damage.

According to Chapter 6. 4 § SKL should the general rule of joint and several liability not be applied in cases where one of the tortfeasors is limited in their liability . The reconciling rule that concentrates on minors liabilities is Chapter 2. 4 § SKL. The circumstances taken into account in this paragraph is the tortfeasors age, development, the nature of the action, whether the tortfeasor is covered by a liability insurance, economic conditions and other circumstances.These circumstances are basically only applied in cases where the tortfeasor under the age 15. Tortfeasors between 15 and 18 can generally only invoke economic circumstances at the reconciliation of Chapter 2. 4 § SKL.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the applicable law for minors joint and several liability. The questions answered in the work are the conditions for joint and several liability in general, minors joint and several liability and the deviance of the responsibilities and how minors reconciliation rule affects the person suffering from the damage. The end of the essay also coves the legislative proposals on this area.

The method used in the work of this paper is right dogmatic method of interpretation. The analysis addresses the purpose of the laws discussed in the context of prevention and repair. In addition, a de lege ferenda reasoning has been made to the issue of the legislative proposals on this area.

The proposed legislative changes discussed in this paper all have in common that the general rule of joint and several liability shall be excluded for tortfeasos under the age of 18 years old. The responsibility should instead be a shared responsibility according to the general rule, regardless if the reconciliation takes place or not. Most proposals focus on criminal actions which according to the essay's conclusions would have an unfair result.

The conclusion of this paper is that shared responsibility should be the general rule for minors, regardless if the reconciliation takes place or not. It should be irrelevant with how much awareness the tortfeasors committed the act. All the circumstances of the reconciliation rule for minors shall be considered up to age 18 and not only up to age 15. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kara, Christi LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Minors joint and several liability
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
barn, omyndig, skadeståndsskyldighet, Solidariskt ansvar, skadeståndsrätt, ungdom, regress, ansvarsfördelning, försäkring
language
Swedish
id
3971443
date added to LUP
2013-10-01 06:53:32
date last changed
2013-10-01 06:53:32
@misc{3971443,
  abstract     = {Joint and several liability is the general rule in Swedish law when multiple guilty parties are responsible for one together caused damage. Joint and several liability means that the injured party can claim that just one of tortfeasors is held responsible for the entire amount of the damages like as if the tortfeasor was alone responsible for the whole damage. The general conditions for liability have to meet the requirements for each of the tortfeasors. The tortfeasor who is than held responosible for the whole damage than has the right to recourse against the other parties responsible for the damage. Responsibilities in between tortfeasors is decided by a fairness opinion, it is presumed, however, that the damages should be divided after the number of parties responsible for the damage. 

According to Chapter 6. 4 § SKL should the general rule of joint and several liability not be applied in cases where one of the tortfeasors is limited in their liability . The reconciling rule that concentrates on minors liabilities is Chapter 2. 4 § SKL. The circumstances taken into account in this paragraph is the tortfeasors age, development, the nature of the action, whether the tortfeasor is covered by a liability insurance, economic conditions and other circumstances.These circumstances are basically only applied in cases where the tortfeasor under the age 15. Tortfeasors between 15 and 18 can generally only invoke economic circumstances at the reconciliation of Chapter 2. 4 § SKL.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the applicable law for minors joint and several liability. The questions answered in the work are the conditions for joint and several liability in general, minors joint and several liability and the deviance of the responsibilities and how minors reconciliation rule affects the person suffering from the damage. The end of the essay also coves the legislative proposals on this area. 

The method used in the work of this paper is right dogmatic method of interpretation. The analysis addresses the purpose of the laws discussed in the context of prevention and repair. In addition, a de lege ferenda reasoning has been made to the issue of the legislative proposals on this area.

The proposed legislative changes discussed in this paper all have in common that the general rule of joint and several liability shall be excluded for tortfeasos under the age of 18 years old. The responsibility should instead be a shared responsibility according to the general rule, regardless if the reconciliation takes place or not. Most proposals focus on criminal actions which according to the essay's conclusions would have an unfair result.

The conclusion of this paper is that shared responsibility should be the general rule for minors, regardless if the reconciliation takes place or not. It should be irrelevant with how much awareness the tortfeasors committed the act. All the circumstances of the reconciliation rule for minors shall be considered up to age 18 and not only up to age 15.},
  author       = {Kara, Christi},
  keyword      = {barn,omyndig,skadeståndsskyldighet,Solidariskt ansvar,skadeståndsrätt,ungdom,regress,ansvarsfördelning,försäkring},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Omyndigas solidariska skadeståndsansvar},
  year         = {2013},
}