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Polisens ID-kontroller i konflikt med den (rasifierade) enskildes fri- och rättigheter – Rättstillämpning av inre utlänningskontroll i ljuset av regeringsformen och Europakonventionen

Westerfors, Björn LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Debatten om polisens kontroller av ID-handlingar i samband med färdbeviskontroll i Stockholms tunnelbana kulminerade under första halvåret av 2013. I media diskuterades att färdbeviskontrollerna egentligen syftade till att utföra inre utlänningskontroll, metoderna för dessa och på vilken rättslig grund det kan ske. Det uppmärksammades även att kontrollerna tycktes rikta sig mot personer med minoritetsutseende.
Sverige präglas av fri rörlighet till grannländer och inom EU med konsekvensen att den inre utlänningskontrollen växer i betydelse. Polisens kontroller ställer två motstående intressen på sin spets. Den enskildes fri- och rättigheter att inte bli kontrollerad utan välgrundad anledning och statens intresse att effektivt kontrollera... (More)
Debatten om polisens kontroller av ID-handlingar i samband med färdbeviskontroll i Stockholms tunnelbana kulminerade under första halvåret av 2013. I media diskuterades att färdbeviskontrollerna egentligen syftade till att utföra inre utlänningskontroll, metoderna för dessa och på vilken rättslig grund det kan ske. Det uppmärksammades även att kontrollerna tycktes rikta sig mot personer med minoritetsutseende.
Sverige präglas av fri rörlighet till grannländer och inom EU med konsekvensen att den inre utlänningskontrollen växer i betydelse. Polisens kontroller ställer två motstående intressen på sin spets. Den enskildes fri- och rättigheter att inte bli kontrollerad utan välgrundad anledning och statens intresse att effektivt kontrollera enskildas lagliga rätt att vistas inom landet. Därför undersöker uppsatsen den enskildes fri- och rättigheter utifrån migrationsrättens reglering av inre utlänningskontroll vilket följs upp med ett ras- och etnicitetsperspektiv och viktiga indikationer från en internationell rättsutveckling som påvisar fall av etnisk profilering och diskriminering.
Inledningsvis undersöks den enskildes fri- och rättigheter i regeringsformen utifrån begreppen likabehandling, integritet och icke-diskriminering samt det parallella fri- och rättighetsskydd som återfinns i Europakonventionens artikel 8 och artikel 14. Genom att redogöra för rättsfallet Gillan och Quinton mot UK från 2010 kan Europadomstolens tolkning användas i analysen för att jämföra rättstillämpningen av den inre utlänningskontrollen med Europakonventionens skydd.
Med en redogörelse för hur dagens gränskontroller uppkommit och hur ras varit en inkluderad del av migrationsrätten ökar förståelsen för den problematik som uppstår vid särskiljande av människor. Genom att granska lag, förarbeten, doktrin och föreskrifter beskrivs regleringen av inre utlänningskontroll och rättstillämpningen av den.
Rättstillämpningen av inre utlänningskontroll ska vara effektiv men också uppfylla rättsstatens grundläggande principer och vara i enlighet med polisens värdegrund. Kontrollen har betydande inslag på inverkar på enskildas integritet, likabehandling och icke-diskriminering. En medvetenhet om begreppen ras, etnicitet, rasifieringsprocess och etnisk profilering är därför viktig för att se till att de arbetsmetoder som används inte diskriminerar enskilda utifrån deras yttre attribut.
I slutsatsen konstateras att regleringen om inre utlänningskontroll inte formellt kan anses strida mot den enskildes fri- och rättighetsskydd i regeringsformen och Europakonventionen men att lagstiftaren bör förtydliga rekvisiten så att rättstillämpningen är i enlighet med lagstiftarens syfte. Vissa av polisens arbetsmetoder brister i förutsägbarhet vilket är ett hot mot rättsäkerheten som bör diskuteras ytterligare. Att kontrollera en enskild endast eller huvudsakligen utifrån antagen etnisk bakgrund strider mot rätten till respekt för privatliv och integritet i artikel 8 samt strider mot diskrimineringsförbudet i artikel 14. Även om inre utlänningskontroll är i enlighet med inskränkningarna av den enskildes fri- och rättighetsskydd och rättsligt begränsade enligt förarbeten och föreskrifter saknas föreskrifter hos polisen kring lämpliga säkerhetsåtgärder för att förhindra missbruk. Utifrån forskning på området samt intervjuer föreslås ett antal åtgärder. Föreskrifter bör inkludera vägledning om när kontroller inte bör inledas eller vad som kan indikera att en kontroll bör avbrytas. Dokumentationen vid ingripanden bör utökas och samordnas för att i efterhand utgöra underlag för att se vem som kontrolleras och utifrån vilken grund.
Uppsatsen drar inga slutsatser om utfallet av rättstillämpningen och eventuell etnisk profilering vid inre utlänningskontroll då underlag i stort sett saknas. Flera indikatorer pekar mot att frågan om etnisk profilering och strukturell diskriminering behöver undersökas ytterligare i Sverige. Aktuella internationella rättsfall som rör poliskontroller har tydligt fastställt diskriminerande rättstillämpning mot minoriteter vilket indikerar att problematiken även kan finnas här. Med ett oberoende tillsynsorgan, översyn av polisutbildning, införandet av lämpliga rättsliga säkerhetsbestämmelser samt samarbete med civilsamhället kan risken för etnisk profilering och diskriminering minskas. (Less)
Abstract
The debate on the Police’s identity checks in connection to ticket control in the Stockholm metro culminated during the first half of 2013. In the media the discussions focused whether the ticket controls were undertaken due to internal border control, the methods for the procedure and on what legal ground it was undertaken. It was also especially noted that this form of controls seemed to specifically target people with minority appearance.
The border of Sweden is characterized by freedom of movement to its neighbour states and within the EU with the result of the growing importance of the internal border control. The Police’s control highlights the two conflicting interests; firstly the individual’s rights and liberties not to be... (More)
The debate on the Police’s identity checks in connection to ticket control in the Stockholm metro culminated during the first half of 2013. In the media the discussions focused whether the ticket controls were undertaken due to internal border control, the methods for the procedure and on what legal ground it was undertaken. It was also especially noted that this form of controls seemed to specifically target people with minority appearance.
The border of Sweden is characterized by freedom of movement to its neighbour states and within the EU with the result of the growing importance of the internal border control. The Police’s control highlights the two conflicting interests; firstly the individual’s rights and liberties not to be checked without substantial ground and secondly the state’s interest of efficient controls of individual’s right to uphold within the territory. From that starting point, this thesis examines the individual’s rights and liberties in relation to the internal border control, followed with a race and ethnicity perspective along with important international indications from court cases showing ethnic profiling and discrimination.
Initiating with a review of the individual’s rights and liberties connected to equal treatment, integrity and non-discrimination in the Swedish constitutional law, specifically in the fundamental law of the 1974 Instrument of Government (RF) and the parallel protection of rights in article 8 and 14 in the European Convention of Human Rights. Through the narration of the European Court of Human Rights case Gillan and Quinton vs. UK from 2010 the Court’s interpretation is used in the analysis to compare the application of law of the internal border control with the scope of the Conventional protection.
The historical background of present border controls and how race formerly was used to legitimate migration law supplements the problematic issue of differentiating people. The legal understanding including the application of law is based on the review of the law, travaux préparatoires, doctrine and instructions.
The application of law of internal border control should be efficient but also respect the fundamental principles in rule of law and the Police’s internal basic values. The control has a serve impact on the individual’s equal treatment, integrity and non-discrimination. Awareness of race, ethnicity, racialization and ethnical profiling is important to make sure that the used working methods not discriminate individuals due to their physical appearance.
The conclusion that can be drawn is that the regulation of internal border control cannot formally be considered to violate the individual’s rights and liberties in the Swedish constitution or the European Convention of Human Rights but the legislator should clarify the necessary prerequisite so that the application of law is in accordance with the legislator’s intention. Certain of the Police’s working methods lack predictability, which threatens fundamental principles of rule of law that needs to be further discussed. A control that targets individuals only or primarily from an assumed ethnical origin is clearly a violation the right to respect for privacy in article 8 and the prohibition of discrimination in article 14. Even if the internal border control is in accordance with restrictions of the individual’s rights and liberties in the Swedish constitutional laws and limited by travaux préparatoires and the internal police instructions, the police lack instructions for appropriate security measures of how to avoid discriminatory and excessive abuse. Based on the research a number of measures are suggested such as that the Police instructions should include a guide when controls should not be undertaken and what could indicate that a control should be aborted. A more extensive documentation of interventions should be coordinated to enable analysis on who’s being controlled and on what grounds.
This paper does not draw any conclusion of the factual outcome of the application of law or possible ethnical profiling regarding internal border control due to lack of basic data. Several factors indicate that that issue of ethnical profiling and structural discrimination needs to be studied in Sweden. Judgments in resent international court cases concerning police controls declared discriminatory working methods (i.e. stop and search) towards minorities indicate that it also could be a problem in Sweden. With an independent supervisory body, a review of the police education, an introduction of appropriate legal security measures and cooperation with the civil society the risk for ethnic profiling and discrimination can be reduced. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Westerfors, Björn LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Police's identity checks in conflict with the (racialized) individual's rights and liberties - The application of the internal border control in the light of the Swedish constitution and the European Convention of Human Rights
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
folkrätt public international law inre utlänningskontroll polis migrationsrätt icke-diskriminering likabehandling integritet fri- och rättigheter regeringsformen europakonventionen artikel 8 artikel 14 rasprofilering etnisk profilering
language
Swedish
id
4024631
date added to LUP
2013-11-29 11:37:36
date last changed
2013-11-29 11:37:36
@misc{4024631,
  abstract     = {The debate on the Police’s identity checks in connection to ticket control in the Stockholm metro culminated during the first half of 2013. In the media the discussions focused whether the ticket controls were undertaken due to internal border control, the methods for the procedure and on what legal ground it was undertaken. It was also especially noted that this form of controls seemed to specifically target people with minority appearance. 
	The border of Sweden is characterized by freedom of movement to its neighbour states and within the EU with the result of the growing importance of the internal border control. The Police’s control highlights the two conflicting interests; firstly the individual’s rights and liberties not to be checked without substantial ground and secondly the state’s interest of efficient controls of individual’s right to uphold within the territory. From that starting point, this thesis examines the individual’s rights and liberties in relation to the internal border control, followed with a race and ethnicity perspective along with important international indications from court cases showing ethnic profiling and discrimination. 
	Initiating with a review of the individual’s rights and liberties connected to equal treatment, integrity and non-discrimination in the Swedish constitutional law, specifically in the fundamental law of the 1974 Instrument of Government (RF) and the parallel protection of rights in article 8 and 14 in the European Convention of Human Rights. Through the narration of the European Court of Human Rights case Gillan and Quinton vs. UK from 2010 the Court’s interpretation is used in the analysis to compare the application of law of the internal border control with the scope of the Conventional protection. 
	The historical background of present border controls and how race formerly was used to legitimate migration law supplements the problematic issue of differentiating people. The legal understanding including the application of law is based on the review of the law, travaux préparatoires, doctrine and instructions.
	The application of law of internal border control should be efficient but also respect the fundamental principles in rule of law and the Police’s internal basic values. The control has a serve impact on the individual’s equal treatment, integrity and non-discrimination. Awareness of race, ethnicity, racialization and ethnical profiling is important to make sure that the used working methods not discriminate individuals due to their physical appearance. 
	The conclusion that can be drawn is that the regulation of internal border control cannot formally be considered to violate the individual’s rights and liberties in the Swedish constitution or the European Convention of Human Rights but the legislator should clarify the necessary prerequisite so that the application of law is in accordance with the legislator’s intention. Certain of the Police’s working methods lack predictability, which threatens fundamental principles of rule of law that needs to be further discussed. A control that targets individuals only or primarily from an assumed ethnical origin is clearly a violation the right to respect for privacy in article 8 and the prohibition of discrimination in article 14. Even if the internal border control is in accordance with restrictions of the individual’s rights and liberties in the Swedish constitutional laws and limited by travaux préparatoires and the internal police instructions, the police lack instructions for appropriate security measures of how to avoid discriminatory and excessive abuse. Based on the research a number of measures are suggested such as that the Police instructions should include a guide when controls should not be undertaken and what could indicate that a control should be aborted. A more extensive documentation of interventions should be coordinated to enable analysis on who’s being controlled and on what grounds.
	This paper does not draw any conclusion of the factual outcome of the application of law or possible ethnical profiling regarding internal border control due to lack of basic data. Several factors indicate that that issue of ethnical profiling and structural discrimination needs to be studied in Sweden. Judgments in resent international court cases concerning police controls declared discriminatory working methods (i.e. stop and search) towards minorities indicate that it also could be a problem in Sweden. With an independent supervisory body, a review of the police education, an introduction of appropriate legal security measures and cooperation with the civil society the risk for ethnic profiling and discrimination can be reduced.},
  author       = {Westerfors, Björn},
  keyword      = {folkrätt public international law inre utlänningskontroll polis migrationsrätt icke-diskriminering likabehandling integritet fri- och rättigheter regeringsformen europakonventionen artikel 8 artikel 14 rasprofilering etnisk profilering},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Polisens ID-kontroller i konflikt med den (rasifierade) enskildes fri- och rättigheter – Rättstillämpning av inre utlänningskontroll i ljuset av regeringsformen och Europakonventionen},
  year         = {2013},
}