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Speciation and hybridization in birds - genetic evaluation of an undescribed Paradise Flycatcer using mitochondrial markers and RAD-tag sequencing

Pruisscher, Peter (2013) BIOP34 20122
Degree Projects in Biology
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Five species of Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) occur in mainland Africa. Colour polymorphism and hybridization make species identification and defining species boundaries challenging. A strange melanistic individual was found in Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria. The melanistic individual was identified as a T. bedfordi based on morphology. However, only T. viridis and T. rufiventer occur in this area. Hypotheses were that the individual is either: (i) a hybrid of T. rufiventer & T. viridis, (ii) a colour morph, or (iii) that it is an individual of a remnant T. bedfordi population. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker showed that the individual groups in the T. viridis clade. In... (More)
ABSTRACT

Five species of Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) occur in mainland Africa. Colour polymorphism and hybridization make species identification and defining species boundaries challenging. A strange melanistic individual was found in Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria. The melanistic individual was identified as a T. bedfordi based on morphology. However, only T. viridis and T. rufiventer occur in this area. Hypotheses were that the individual is either: (i) a hybrid of T. rufiventer & T. viridis, (ii) a colour morph, or (iii) that it is an individual of a remnant T. bedfordi population. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker showed that the individual groups in the T. viridis clade. In contrast, analysis on 26,609 loci (~2,5 Mb sequence for each of three individuals sequenced) obtained by RAD-tag sequencing showed that overall FST between the melanistic individual and the other two species was high. Heterozygosity of the individual was lower than in T. viridis and T. rufiventer. Further structure-, differentiation-, distance-, and cluster analyses supported this pattern, showing that this individual is not closely related to T. viridis or T. rufiventer. The current hypotheses is that the individual is from a remnant T. bedfordi population that has an ancestral connection to T. viridis. This hypothesis explains the mtDNA results, as well as the melanistic plumage, and the low overall heterozygosity (Less)
Abstract
Popular science summary

Identifying an African Paradise Flycatcher using molecular techniques

Five species of Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) occur in mainland Africa. Colour polymorphism and hybridization in these birds make species identification and defining species boundaries challenging. A melanistic individual was captured in Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria, and could not be identified as one of the species occurring in this area.

The melanistic individual was identified as a T. bedfordi based on morphology. However, only T. viridis and T. rufiventer occur in this area. Hypotheses were that the individual is either: (i) a hybrid of T. rufiventer & T. viridis, (ii) a colour morph, or (iii) that it is an individual... (More)
Popular science summary

Identifying an African Paradise Flycatcher using molecular techniques

Five species of Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) occur in mainland Africa. Colour polymorphism and hybridization in these birds make species identification and defining species boundaries challenging. A melanistic individual was captured in Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria, and could not be identified as one of the species occurring in this area.

The melanistic individual was identified as a T. bedfordi based on morphology. However, only T. viridis and T. rufiventer occur in this area. Hypotheses were that the individual is either: (i) a hybrid of T. rufiventer & T. viridis, (ii) a colour morph, or (iii) that it is an individual of a remnant T. bedfordi population. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker showed that the individual groups close to T. viridis. However, analysis on 26,609 loci (~2,5 Mega base of sequence for each of three individuals sequenced) obtained by RAD-tag sequencing showed that the melanistic individual and T. viridis are not closely related to each other at all. Heterozygosity of the individual was lower than in T. viridis and T. rufiventer, which is the opposite of what is expected if it would have been a hybrid. Several analyses, including structure-, differentiation-, distance-, and cluster analyses supported this pattern, showing that this individual is not closely related to T. viridis
or T. rufiventer. The current hypotheses is that the individual is from a remnant T. bedfordi population that has an ancestral connection to T. viridis. This hypothesis explains the mtDNA results, as well as the melanistic plumage, and the low overall heterozygosity.

Advisor: Bengt Hansson & Martin Stervander
Master´s Degree Project 60 credits in Molecular Ecology 2013
Department of Biology, Lund University (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Pruisscher, Peter
supervisor
organization
course
BIOP34 20122
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
language
English
id
4058181
date added to LUP
2013-09-25 10:25:49
date last changed
2013-09-25 10:25:49
@misc{4058181,
  abstract     = {Popular science summary

Identifying an African Paradise Flycatcher using molecular techniques

Five species of Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) occur in mainland Africa. Colour polymorphism and hybridization in these birds make species identification and defining species boundaries challenging. A melanistic individual was captured in Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria, and could not be identified as one of the species occurring in this area.

The melanistic individual was identified as a T. bedfordi based on morphology. However, only T. viridis and T. rufiventer occur in this area. Hypotheses were that the individual is either: (i) a hybrid of T. rufiventer & T. viridis, (ii) a colour morph, or (iii) that it is an individual of a remnant T. bedfordi population. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker showed that the individual groups close to T. viridis. However, analysis on 26,609 loci (~2,5 Mega base of sequence for each of three individuals sequenced) obtained by RAD-tag sequencing showed that the melanistic individual and T. viridis are not closely related to each other at all. Heterozygosity of the individual was lower than in T. viridis and T. rufiventer, which is the opposite of what is expected if it would have been a hybrid. Several analyses, including structure-, differentiation-, distance-, and cluster analyses supported this pattern, showing that this individual is not closely related to T. viridis
or T. rufiventer. The current hypotheses is that the individual is from a remnant T. bedfordi population that has an ancestral connection to T. viridis. This hypothesis explains the mtDNA results, as well as the melanistic plumage, and the low overall heterozygosity.

Advisor: Bengt Hansson & Martin Stervander
Master´s Degree Project 60 credits in Molecular Ecology 2013
Department of Biology, Lund University},
  author       = {Pruisscher, Peter},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Speciation and hybridization in birds - genetic evaluation of an undescribed Paradise Flycatcer using mitochondrial markers and RAD-tag sequencing},
  year         = {2013},
}