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Kronvittnessystem som strafflindring? - En komparativ studie av svensk- och dansk rätt

Gustavsson, Peggy LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Ett kronvittnessystem, som innebär att en tilltalad genom angivelse av andra personers brottslighet kan få ett lindrigare straff, förekommer inte i det svenska rättsystemet. Syftet med denna uppsats är att, efter en komparation med Danmark, utreda om ett kronvittnessystem som strafflindringsgrund borde införas. Straffsystemets vägledande principer i både Danmark och Sverige är rättssäkerhet, legalitet, likhet inför lagen, proportionalitet liksom saklighet och opartiskhet. Detta för att systemet skall ha förankring hos medborgarna.

BrB 29 kap. innehåller två paragrafer som kan leda till ett lindrigare straff. De förmildrande omständigheterna finns i 3 § och de är relaterade till gärningen medan 5 § innehåller billighetsskälen som är... (More)
Ett kronvittnessystem, som innebär att en tilltalad genom angivelse av andra personers brottslighet kan få ett lindrigare straff, förekommer inte i det svenska rättsystemet. Syftet med denna uppsats är att, efter en komparation med Danmark, utreda om ett kronvittnessystem som strafflindringsgrund borde införas. Straffsystemets vägledande principer i både Danmark och Sverige är rättssäkerhet, legalitet, likhet inför lagen, proportionalitet liksom saklighet och opartiskhet. Detta för att systemet skall ha förankring hos medborgarna.

BrB 29 kap. innehåller två paragrafer som kan leda till ett lindrigare straff. De förmildrande omständigheterna finns i 3 § och de är relaterade till gärningen medan 5 § innehåller billighetsskälen som är relaterade till gärningsmannen och inte själva gärningen. Kronvittne har inte ansetts falla in under någon av paragraferna. Att ange medbrottslingar efter gärningen påverkar inte omständigheterna vid gärningen och är därför inte hänförlig till de förmildrande omständigheterna. Billighetsskälen innehåller 8 punkter där strafflindring kan ges om det vore orättfärdigt att inte beakta omständigheten vid straffmätningen eller att gärningsmannen efter gärningen handlat på ett sätt som visar ånger. Att ange någon annan har mer att göra med processekonomiska skäl. Då handlar det istället om att hjälpa polis och åklagare med att utreda brott. Efter ett avgörande av Högsta Domstolen från år 2009 finns det dock möjlighet till strafflindring om det som en konsekvens av att den tilltalade lämnat uppgifter om andras brottslighet lett till hot om allvarliga repressalier.

Danmark har infört en bestämmelse i straffeloven, 82 § pt. 10, som innebär att en tilltalad kan få ett lindrigare straff om denne lämnar uppgifter rörande andra personers brottslighet och det leder till att klara upp brott. Precis som i Sverige anser Danmark att likhet inför lagen och proportionalitet skall ligga till grund för straffet. Trots det valde de att införa en paragraf om att angivelse av andra kan leda till strafflindring. Det är upp till rätten att bedöma om angivelsen skall leda till strafflindring.

Debatten i Danmark var, precis som den är i Sverige nu, livlig före införandet. Förekommande argument var att det vore moraliskt fel att få ett lägre straff för att ha skvallrat samt att det ansågs problematiskt att veta hur sanningsenlig berättelsen är då personen har något att vinna på att beskylla någon annan. Efter införandet i Danmark har det inte varit några direkta protester i media och paragrafen har använts som strafflindring i ett antal fall och lett till att fler brott uppklarats. De flesta partierna i Sverige är numera positiva till ett införande av ett sådant system då det skulle underlätta att komma åt den organiserade brottsligheten vilket är svårt idag. (Less)
Abstract
The legal system of Sweden does not contain a crown witness system. A crown witness system means that a defendant can get a penalty discount if he or she reveals other people's crimes so the police and the prosecutor can convict other criminals. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, after a comparison with Denmark, if Sweden should introduce a crown witness system as a possibility to get penalty discount.

The prevailing ideology of criminal justice, both in Sweden and Denmark, is based on proportionality, equivalence, legality, equality before the law and objectivity. There are two possibilities to get a penalty discount in the Swedish Penal Code. First, Chapter 29 § 3, which includes clemency pleas related to the crime.... (More)
The legal system of Sweden does not contain a crown witness system. A crown witness system means that a defendant can get a penalty discount if he or she reveals other people's crimes so the police and the prosecutor can convict other criminals. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, after a comparison with Denmark, if Sweden should introduce a crown witness system as a possibility to get penalty discount.

The prevailing ideology of criminal justice, both in Sweden and Denmark, is based on proportionality, equivalence, legality, equality before the law and objectivity. There are two possibilities to get a penalty discount in the Swedish Penal Code. First, Chapter 29 § 3, which includes clemency pleas related to the crime. Secondly, 29 § 5, which includes clemency pleas related to the equitable grounds. The equitable grounds are related to the defendant’s personal circumstances or to something that he or she did after the crime that showed regret. A crown witness system does not fit in 3 § nor in 5 §. Revealing other people´s crimes do not affect the circumstances during the crime and is not unreasonable or unfair to the defendant. Instead, it depends on procedural economy and about helping police and prosecutors to convict criminals. However, nowadays, after a precedent from the Supreme Court, NJA 2009 s. 599, the defendant has a chance of a penalty discount if he or she receive serious reprisals of threats as a consequence of revealing other people’s crimes.

Even though Denmark just like Sweden, find that criminal justice is based on proportionality and equality, Denmark has introduced a crown witness system in their Penal Code 82 § pt. 10. This rule should be seen as a clemency plea – related to an act after the crime. Nevertheless, it is the court that will decide if the reveal would lead to a penalty discount or not. Before introducing the crown system in Denmark an intense debate appeared. This reflects the on going debate in Sweden about introducing the crown witness system or not. However, it is said that it would be morally wrong to get a penalty discount by revealing other people’s crimes. Furthermore it is said that the information from a crown witness could be expected to have a low probative value because the defendant could earn a penalty discount by blaming other people.

After introducing the crown witness system in Denmark, the debate has faded away. Most Swedish politicians want to introduce the system in Sweden, since they think it could help to solve the organized crimes. This rule has been used in some cases in Denmark and has led to the revealing of other criminals. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Gustavsson, Peggy LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Kronvittne, Straffrätt, Strafflindring, Billighetsskäl
language
Swedish
id
4228999
date added to LUP
2014-01-28 17:30:09
date last changed
2014-01-28 17:30:09
@misc{4228999,
  abstract     = {The legal system of Sweden does not contain a crown witness system. A crown witness system means that a defendant can get a penalty discount if he or she reveals other people's crimes so the police and the prosecutor can convict other criminals. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, after a comparison with Denmark, if Sweden should introduce a crown witness system as a possibility to get penalty discount. 

The prevailing ideology of criminal justice, both in Sweden and Denmark, is based on proportionality, equivalence, legality, equality before the law and objectivity. There are two possibilities to get a penalty discount in the Swedish Penal Code. First, Chapter 29 § 3, which includes clemency pleas related to the crime. Secondly, 29 § 5, which includes clemency pleas related to the equitable grounds. The equitable grounds are related to the defendant’s personal circumstances or to something that he or she did after the crime that showed regret. A crown witness system does not fit in 3 § nor in 5 §. Revealing other people´s crimes do not affect the circumstances during the crime and is not unreasonable or unfair to the defendant. Instead, it depends on procedural economy and about helping police and prosecutors to convict criminals. However, nowadays, after a precedent from the Supreme Court, NJA 2009 s. 599, the defendant has a chance of a penalty discount if he or she receive serious reprisals of threats as a consequence of revealing other people’s crimes. 

Even though Denmark just like Sweden, find that criminal justice is based on proportionality and equality, Denmark has introduced a crown witness system in their Penal Code 82 § pt. 10. This rule should be seen as a clemency plea – related to an act after the crime. Nevertheless, it is the court that will decide if the reveal would lead to a penalty discount or not. Before introducing the crown system in Denmark an intense debate appeared. This reflects the on going debate in Sweden about introducing the crown witness system or not. However, it is said that it would be morally wrong to get a penalty discount by revealing other people’s crimes. Furthermore it is said that the information from a crown witness could be expected to have a low probative value because the defendant could earn a penalty discount by blaming other people. 

After introducing the crown witness system in Denmark, the debate has faded away. Most Swedish politicians want to introduce the system in Sweden, since they think it could help to solve the organized crimes. This rule has been used in some cases in Denmark and has led to the revealing of other criminals.},
  author       = {Gustavsson, Peggy},
  keyword      = {Kronvittne,Straffrätt,Strafflindring,Billighetsskäl},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kronvittnessystem som strafflindring? - En komparativ studie av svensk- och dansk rätt},
  year         = {2013},
}