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Effektiv brottsbekämpning till varje pris? En studie av iakttagandet av proportionalitetsprincipen vid utfärdanden av europeiska arresteringsorder

Neandhers, Frida LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Enligt rättsstatsideologin ska den enskilde individen tillförsäkras rättssäkerhet. Det innebär att individen ska skyddas mot övergrepp från statens, eller överhetens, sida genom att staten ålägger sig själv vissa restriktioner i maktutövandet. Proportionalitetsprincipen reglerar statens befogenheter och utgör en del av rättssäkerheten genom att tillvarata individens intressen gentemot staten. Enligt proportionalitetsprincipen får åtgärder inte gå utöver vad som är nödvändigt för att uppnå ett visst mål.

EU är ingen rättsstat i den traditionella bemärkelsen. EU:s rättsordning är av ett eget slag, kallad sui generis. Unionens rättsordning har emellertid inslag av överstatlighet och internationell rätt. Krav på att enskilda medborgare ska... (More)
Enligt rättsstatsideologin ska den enskilde individen tillförsäkras rättssäkerhet. Det innebär att individen ska skyddas mot övergrepp från statens, eller överhetens, sida genom att staten ålägger sig själv vissa restriktioner i maktutövandet. Proportionalitetsprincipen reglerar statens befogenheter och utgör en del av rättssäkerheten genom att tillvarata individens intressen gentemot staten. Enligt proportionalitetsprincipen får åtgärder inte gå utöver vad som är nödvändigt för att uppnå ett visst mål.

EU är ingen rättsstat i den traditionella bemärkelsen. EU:s rättsordning är av ett eget slag, kallad sui generis. Unionens rättsordning har emellertid inslag av överstatlighet och internationell rätt. Krav på att enskilda medborgare ska tillförsäkras rättssäkerhet gäller emellertid även inom ramen för EU:s organisation då det framgår av FEU artikel 2 att EU vilar på rättsstatsbegreppet. Proportionalitetsprincipen utgör ett rättssäkerhetsvärde och utgör en allmän rättsprincip inom EU-rätten.

Europeiska rådet höll ett toppmöte 1999 i Tammerfors angående skapandet av ett område med frihet, säkerhet och rättvisa inom EU. Under mötet fastslogs att principen om ömsesidigt erkännande skulle utgöra en hörnsten inom det straffrättsliga samarbetet. År 2004 trädde rambeslutet om en europeisk arresteringsorder och överlämnande mellan medlemsstaterna ikraft. Detta kom att bli den första reella åtgärd inom det straffrättsliga området rörande principen om ömsesidigt erkännande. Det dåvarande systemet med utlämningar ersattes med ett nytt, förenklat system med överlämningar.

Med tanke på att ett överlämningsförfarande kan innebära långtgående tvångsåtgärder mot personer som är föremål för ett överlämnande är det viktigt att individers rättssäkerhet tillförsäkras så långt möjligt. Vidare är ett överlämningsförfarande ofta mycket resurskrävande. Av dessa anledningar bör proportionalitetsprincipen iakttas vid överlämningsförfaranden.

Medlemsstaternas straffrättssystem är inte harmoniserade varför olikheter mellan systemen kan orsaka en viss problematik i samarbetet. Sedan den europeiska arresteringsorderns ikraftträdande har det framkommit att medlemsstater ibland brister vad gäller iakttagandet av proportionalitetsprincipen. Detta har lett till att arresteringsorder har utfärdats för brott av mindre allvarliga slag, något som inte var tanken med det nya förfarandet.

Det finns ett objektivt krav på proportionalitet i rambeslutet. Medlemsstater har dock utöver det lagstadgade kravet även uppmanats att endast utfärda en arresteringsorder då brottets allvarlighet kan anses stå i proportion till de kostnader, det arbete, det eventuella straffet vid en fällande dom, brottsofferintressen samt vad ett sådant förfarande kan innebära för den enskilde som är föremål för ett överlämnande. Kan mindre ingripande åtgärder vidtas bör de väljas i första hand. Finns det möjlighet för medlemsstater att tillgå andra instrument inom ramen för ömsesidig rättshjälp för att assistera varandra bör man välja det i första hand.

Den skrivna lagen är inte fullkomlig och ger inte svar på alla frågor som kan uppkomma i verkligheten. Rättsprinciper fungerar som utfyllande rätt och kan fylla i de luckor i rätten som kan uppstå. Proportionalitetsprincipen utgör ett rättssäkerhetsvärde som tar sikte på att tillförsäkra medborgare rättssäkerhet gentemot överheten. Genom att inte vidta mer ingripande åtgärder än nödvändigt skyddas den enskilde individen mot att bli utsatt för otillbörliga åtgärder från överheten. För att undvika alltför stora skillnader mellan medlemsstaternas praxis vad gäller utfärdanden av arresteringsorder är det viktigt att proportionalitetsprincipen iakttas. Ett sätt att kringgå problematiken är att införa enhetliga proportionalitetskontroller för utfärdande medlemsstater i rambeslutet om den europeiska arresteringsordern. (Less)
Abstract
According to the rule of law ideology, the individual is to be ensured legal certainty. This means that the state should impose restrictions on itself in its exercise of power so that the citizen is protected from the states’ abuse. The principle of proportionality regulates the exercise of powers by the state and forms a part of the rule of law ideology by protecting the interests of the individual against the interests of the state. According to the principle of proportionality, measures may not go beyond what is necessary to achieve a certain objective.

The EU is not a state.The EU’s legal system is of a unique nature, known as sui generis. However, the judicial system of the union does include parts of supranationalism and... (More)
According to the rule of law ideology, the individual is to be ensured legal certainty. This means that the state should impose restrictions on itself in its exercise of power so that the citizen is protected from the states’ abuse. The principle of proportionality regulates the exercise of powers by the state and forms a part of the rule of law ideology by protecting the interests of the individual against the interests of the state. According to the principle of proportionality, measures may not go beyond what is necessary to achieve a certain objective.

The EU is not a state.The EU’s legal system is of a unique nature, known as sui generis. However, the judicial system of the union does include parts of supranationalism and international law. The European Union is based on the rule of law as stated in article 2 TEU. The principle of proportionality constitutes a value of the rule of law and forms av general principle in EU law.

The European Council held a summit in 1999 in Tampere regarding the creation of a union of freedom, security and justice where it was established that the principle of mutual recognition should become the cornerstone of judicial co-operation in both civil and criminal matters within the union. The Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between member states entered into force in 2004. This was to become the first concrete measure in the area of criminal law implementing the principle of mutual recognition. Thus, the former system of extradition was replaced with a new, simplified system of surrender of requested persons.

Given that the surrender procedure may involve extensive coercive measures against persons who are the subject of an arrest warrant, it is important that individuals’ legal certainty be ensured as far as possible. Furthermore, a surrender procedure often requires considerable recoures. For these reasons, the principle of proportionality should be considered before the issuing of a warrant.

The fact that the member states criminal justice systems are not harmonised means that differences between the systems occur and cause problems in the international cooperation. Since the European arrest warrant entered into force results have shown that some member states do not respect the principle of proportionality before issuing an arrest warrant. This has led to the issuing of arrest warrants for minor offences, which was not the intention of how the european arrest warrant was to be applied.

There is an objective requirement of proportionality in the framework decision. In addition to this, Member States have been invited to only issue an arrest warrant when the seriousness of the offence is proportionate to the costs, the work, the expected penalty imposed if the suspect is found guilty of the asserted offence, the consequences a surrender could entail for the person sought and the interests of eventual crime victims. If possible, less coercive instruments of mutual legal assistance should be chosen first.

The written law is not complete and thefore can not provide answers to all questions that may arise in the real world. General principles of law can fill in the gaps in the law that may occur. The principle of proportionality constitutes a value under the rule of law to ensure the individual legal certainty vis-á-vis national powers. The individual is to be protected from inappropriate measures carried out by the powers. In order to avoid excessive discrepancies between member states practices regarding the issuing of arrest warrants, it is important that the principle of proportionality is respected. One way to circumvent this problem is to introduce a uniform proportionality check in the framework decision on the European arrest warrant for the issuing Member States to conduct before deciding to issue a warrant. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Neandhers, Frida LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Should attempts to combat crime be made at all costs? A study investigating the principle of proportionality when issuing European arrest warrants
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, EU-rätt
language
Swedish
id
4230809
date added to LUP
2014-01-28 15:12:31
date last changed
2014-01-28 15:12:31
@misc{4230809,
  abstract     = {According to the rule of law ideology, the individual is to be ensured legal certainty. This means that the state should impose restrictions on itself in its exercise of power so that the citizen is protected from the states’ abuse. The principle of proportionality regulates the exercise of powers by the state and forms a part of the rule of law ideology by protecting the interests of the individual against the interests of the state. According to the principle of proportionality, measures may not go beyond what is necessary to achieve a certain objective. 

The EU is not a state.The EU’s legal system is of a unique nature, known as sui generis. However, the judicial system of the union does include parts of supranationalism and international law. The European Union is based on the rule of law as stated in article 2 TEU. The principle of proportionality constitutes a value of the rule of law and forms av general principle in EU law. 

The European Council held a summit in 1999 in Tampere regarding the creation of a union of freedom, security and justice where it was established that the principle of mutual recognition should become the cornerstone of judicial co-operation in both civil and criminal matters within the union. The Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between member states entered into force in 2004. This was to become the first concrete measure in the area of criminal law implementing the principle of mutual recognition. Thus, the former system of extradition was replaced with a new, simplified system of surrender of requested persons. 

Given that the surrender procedure may involve extensive coercive measures against persons who are the subject of an arrest warrant, it is important that individuals’ legal certainty be ensured as far as possible. Furthermore, a surrender procedure often requires considerable recoures. For these reasons, the principle of proportionality should be considered before the issuing of a warrant. 

The fact that the member states criminal justice systems are not harmonised means that differences between the systems occur and cause problems in the international cooperation. Since the European arrest warrant entered into force results have shown that some member states do not respect the principle of proportionality before issuing an arrest warrant. This has led to the issuing of arrest warrants for minor offences, which was not the intention of how the european arrest warrant was to be applied. 

There is an objective requirement of proportionality in the framework decision. In addition to this, Member States have been invited to only issue an arrest warrant when the seriousness of the offence is proportionate to the costs, the work, the expected penalty imposed if the suspect is found guilty of the asserted offence, the consequences a surrender could entail for the person sought and the interests of eventual crime victims. If possible, less coercive instruments of mutual legal assistance should be chosen first. 

The written law is not complete and thefore can not provide answers to all questions that may arise in the real world. General principles of law can fill in the gaps in the law that may occur. The principle of proportionality constitutes a value under the rule of law to ensure the individual legal certainty vis-á-vis national powers. The individual is to be protected from inappropriate measures carried out by the powers. In order to avoid excessive discrepancies between member states practices regarding the issuing of arrest warrants, it is important that the principle of proportionality is respected. One way to circumvent this problem is to introduce a uniform proportionality check in the framework decision on the European arrest warrant for the issuing Member States to conduct before deciding to issue a warrant.},
  author       = {Neandhers, Frida},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,EU-rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Effektiv brottsbekämpning till varje pris? En studie av iakttagandet av proportionalitetsprincipen vid utfärdanden av europeiska arresteringsorder},
  year         = {2013},
}