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Analysis of the history of landscape changes over a period of 200 years. How can we predict past landscape pattern scenario and the impact on habitat diversity?

Buhot, Yann (2013) In LUMA-GIS Thesis GISM01 20132
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
Popular Science
The decline of plant species biodiversity is closely linked with changes in rural landscape both in time and space. During the last 200 years rural landscape has undergone dramatic changes. Before 1900 rural landscape was mainly composed of grassland and wooded area with grazing cattle. Arable lands at this time were a small part of the landscape and were located around villages. After 1900 most of the grasslands were transformed into arable land or forest. Unfortunately our knowledge of the rural landscape around 1800 is not very good because of the lack of spatial information. However there is in Sweden a good coverage of historical maps but they only covered small area around villages. In rural landscape there are three... (More)
Popular Science
The decline of plant species biodiversity is closely linked with changes in rural landscape both in time and space. During the last 200 years rural landscape has undergone dramatic changes. Before 1900 rural landscape was mainly composed of grassland and wooded area with grazing cattle. Arable lands at this time were a small part of the landscape and were located around villages. After 1900 most of the grasslands were transformed into arable land or forest. Unfortunately our knowledge of the rural landscape around 1800 is not very good because of the lack of spatial information. However there is in Sweden a good coverage of historical maps but they only covered small area around villages. In rural landscape there are three key habitats: semi-natural grassland, wetlands and deciduous forest.
The aim of study was to create a model predicting the landscape as it was in 1800. We used land use historical maps from 1800 as well as land use maps from 1900, soil map and elevation map. In order to create the model we tested the relationship between soil, the slope of the terrain, the distance to settlement and the distance to water and the three habitats. This has been done the Geographical Information System software ArcGIS and the statistical open source software R. The results showed that between 1800 and 1900 a high diversity of habitats became lost especially for semi-natural grasslands. The small amount of data and the high diversity of habitats make it difficult for the construction of the model. However the accuracy for the 1800 was good and the accuracy for the accuracy for the 1900 model was very good. The model for 1900 can be used in a larger extent than the study area.
With such a model it is possible to have a better understanding of rural landscape dynamics in time and space. Conservationist could use this model for pinpointing areas of interest for conservation or restoration. (Less)
Abstract
Biodiversity, and in particular plant species diversity decline is linked to landscape fragmentation and habitats loss due to land use transformations but also to decreasing dispersal vectors in the landscape. During the last 200 years the landscape has undergone dramatic changes in its structure and its habitats diversity. Among the different habitats that constitute rural landscape there are three key habitats that are important for plant species biodiversity: Semi-natural grasslands, deciduous forests and wetlands.
The aim of this study is first to create a model that predict the landscape as it was in 1800 using land cover data from 1900 and variables such as soil properties, distance to settlements, distance to water and slope... (More)
Biodiversity, and in particular plant species diversity decline is linked to landscape fragmentation and habitats loss due to land use transformations but also to decreasing dispersal vectors in the landscape. During the last 200 years the landscape has undergone dramatic changes in its structure and its habitats diversity. Among the different habitats that constitute rural landscape there are three key habitats that are important for plant species biodiversity: Semi-natural grasslands, deciduous forests and wetlands.
The aim of this study is first to create a model that predict the landscape as it was in 1800 using land cover data from 1900 and variables such as soil properties, distance to settlements, distance to water and slope percentage using logistic regression and GIS technology. Then land cover changes are also tested with soil properties, distance to settlement, distance to water and slope percentage. Thus it is possible to have a better understanding of the factor that influence changes from one land cover to another. The results show that between 1800 and 1900, a diversity of habitats has become lost, especially semi-natural grasslands (semi-natural grasslands on fine soil) and wetlands (fen and wooded mire). The small amount of data and the high diversity of habitats made difficult the construction of an accurate model for 1800. In 1800 it was likely too find any type of habitats on any type of soil or terrain conditions. The important finding of this study is that before 1850 there were a high diversity of semi-natural grasslands compare with today as well as a high diversity of wetlands. The model for 1900 has a very good accuracy and could be used for modelling the landscape in a larger extent than the study area.
Such a model can give more opportunities for studying landscape history and therefore get more data for studying the fragmentation of the landscape, which play an important role in the maintenance of a high plant species diversity. Conservationists could use this model for decision-making regarding the restoration of habitat (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Buhot, Yann
supervisor
organization
alternative title
History of landscape changes and the impact on habitat diversity
course
GISM01 20132
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
physical geography, ecosystem analysis, GIS, historical maps, rural landscape, general linear model
publication/series
LUMA-GIS Thesis
report number
25
language
English
additional info
Supervisor Sara Cousin, Professor in Landscape Ecology, Dept. of Physical Geography & Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University
id
4248297
date added to LUP
2014-01-14 09:09:19
date last changed
2014-01-14 09:09:19
@misc{4248297,
  abstract     = {Biodiversity, and in particular plant species diversity decline is linked to landscape fragmentation and habitats loss due to land use transformations but also to decreasing dispersal vectors in the landscape. During the last 200 years the landscape has undergone dramatic changes in its structure and its habitats diversity. Among the different habitats that constitute rural landscape there are three key habitats that are important for plant species biodiversity: Semi-natural grasslands, deciduous forests and wetlands. 
The aim of this study is first to create a model that predict the landscape as it was in 1800 using land cover data from 1900 and variables such as soil properties, distance to settlements, distance to water and slope percentage using logistic regression and GIS technology. Then land cover changes are also tested with soil properties, distance to settlement, distance to water and slope percentage. Thus it is possible to have a better understanding of the factor that influence changes from one land cover to another. The results show that between 1800 and 1900, a diversity of habitats has become lost, especially semi-natural grasslands (semi-natural grasslands on fine soil) and wetlands (fen and wooded mire). The small amount of data and the high diversity of habitats made difficult the construction of an accurate model for 1800. In 1800 it was likely too find any type of habitats on any type of soil or terrain conditions. The important finding of this study is that before 1850 there were a high diversity of semi-natural grasslands compare with today as well as a high diversity of wetlands. The model for 1900 has a very good accuracy and could be used for modelling the landscape in a larger extent than the study area. 
Such a model can give more opportunities for studying landscape history and therefore get more data for studying the fragmentation of the landscape, which play an important role in the maintenance of a high plant species diversity. Conservationists could use this model for decision-making regarding the restoration of habitat},
  author       = {Buhot, Yann},
  keyword      = {physical geography,ecosystem analysis,GIS,historical maps,rural landscape,general linear model},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {LUMA-GIS Thesis},
  title        = {Analysis of the history of landscape changes over a period of 200 years. How can we predict past landscape pattern scenario and the impact on habitat diversity?},
  year         = {2013},
}