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Om kontaktförbud. En uddlös skyddsåtgärd eller en lagstiftning tyngd av förväntningar?

Degerhammar, Cecilia LU (2014) JURM02 20141
Department of Law
Abstract
The contact prohibition act (1988:688), or restraining order (RO), has received increased attention in the media lately. Newspapers have occasionally reported incidents with deadly violence, usually concerning a female victim to violence performed by a male who is in close relationship to the victim (intimate partner violence, IPV), where there existed a granted (or not granted) RO. The regulation in question has been submitted to quite extensive criticism, mostly from representatives from the movement of the rights of victims. Several reports from the national council of crime prevention (NCCP, Brå) have come up with the conclusion that improvements could have been done. This thesis has the overall purpose of providing a demonstration of... (More)
The contact prohibition act (1988:688), or restraining order (RO), has received increased attention in the media lately. Newspapers have occasionally reported incidents with deadly violence, usually concerning a female victim to violence performed by a male who is in close relationship to the victim (intimate partner violence, IPV), where there existed a granted (or not granted) RO. The regulation in question has been submitted to quite extensive criticism, mostly from representatives from the movement of the rights of victims. Several reports from the national council of crime prevention (NCCP, Brå) have come up with the conclusion that improvements could have been done. This thesis has the overall purpose of providing a demonstration of the contact prohibit act, as well as to illustrate some of the more problematic aspects, and also to review the criticism regarding the regulation as well as its enforcement and practice. This thesis also wishes to portray the parties, which constitutes these cases. The aim of this thesis is further to provide answers to questions such as if there is reason for the criticism, and also if stated inadequacies regarding the regulation and its enforcement can be explained and then possibly repaired. The questions thus have the aim of examining and giving an insight in some of the difficulties which shape these cases: partially based on the fact that the regulation from the start created high expectations regarding its effects from a victim perspective.

Among the conclusions can be found the fact that the regulation seems to have inadequacies, foremost regarding the enforcement, which makes the criticism somehow legitimate. This thesis has also tried to prove that the theory of the ideal victim as well as other theories from a victim perspective are fruitful when to analyze the complex relations in RO cases. The requirements for ROs are strict, and the enforcement of the regulation is restrictive. Science shows support for the fact that the enforcement could be less restrictive. At least it supports an evaluation regarding in which group of offenders the RO proves most efficient, according to the crime prevention purpose, and from studies carried out in the field of IPV and different levels of risk. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Lagen (1988:688) om kontaktförbud har varit föremål för ökad medial uppmärksamhet under senare tid. Bland annat har nyhetstidningar rapporterat om våldshändelser med dödlig utgång, som ofta avser en kvinna som fallit offer för en närstående mans våldsutövning, där det i grunden har funnits ett beviljat (eller obeviljat) kontaktförbud. En hel del kritik har riktats mot lagen, främst från representanter för brottsofferrörelsen. Brottsförebyggande rådet (Brå) har i ett flertal rapporter konstaterat att förbättringar har kunnat göras. Denna uppsats har som övergripande syfte att ge en bild av lagen, samt skildra såväl några av de problematiska aspekter, som den kritik som framförts mot både reglerna och dess tillämpning. Uppsatsen avser också... (More)
Lagen (1988:688) om kontaktförbud har varit föremål för ökad medial uppmärksamhet under senare tid. Bland annat har nyhetstidningar rapporterat om våldshändelser med dödlig utgång, som ofta avser en kvinna som fallit offer för en närstående mans våldsutövning, där det i grunden har funnits ett beviljat (eller obeviljat) kontaktförbud. En hel del kritik har riktats mot lagen, främst från representanter för brottsofferrörelsen. Brottsförebyggande rådet (Brå) har i ett flertal rapporter konstaterat att förbättringar har kunnat göras. Denna uppsats har som övergripande syfte att ge en bild av lagen, samt skildra såväl några av de problematiska aspekter, som den kritik som framförts mot både reglerna och dess tillämpning. Uppsatsen avser också att återge de kontrahenter (parterna) som kontaktförbudsärendet utgörs av. Att försöka besvara frågor såsom huruvida det finns fog för den utdelade kritiken och huruvida konstaterade brister avseende lagen och dess tillämpning kan förklaras och eventuellt åtgärdas, är också ett mål med uppsatsen. Frågorna leder också till en undersökning av samt försök till att ge en inblick i några av de problematiska aspekter som präglar dessa ärenden; delvis med grund i att lagen byggts upp utifrån höga förväntningar på dess verkningar ur ett brottsofferperspektiv.

Bland de slutsatser som kunnat dras återfinns det faktum att lagen kan anses ha brister, främst avseende tillämpningen, vilket gör att kritiken får anses befogad till viss del i det avseendet. Uppsatsen har även försökt visa att teorin om ideala offer och andra resonemang utifrån brottsoffersynvinkel är fruktbara grepp för att analysera de intrikata förhållanden som präglar många kontaktförbudsärenden. Att kraven för kontaktförbud är relativt högt ställda samt att lagen tillämpas restriktivt är en ytterligare slutsats. Stöd i forskning kan dock möjligen anses föreligga för att kunna tillämpa lagen mindre restriktivt, eller åtminstone för att omdirigera skyddsåtgärden, dvs. mot vilka kontaktförbudet ska tillämpas för att möta sitt brottsförebyggande syfte. Detta har bl.a. stöd i studier som gjorts kring olika nivåer av risk inom relationsvåldsfältet. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Degerhammar, Cecilia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Contact prohibition orders. Pointless protective measures or a legislation burdened with expectations?
course
JURM02 20141
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
4360498
date added to LUP
2014-07-30 11:17:37
date last changed
2014-07-30 11:17:37
@misc{4360498,
  abstract     = {The contact prohibition act (1988:688), or restraining order (RO), has received increased attention in the media lately. Newspapers have occasionally reported incidents with deadly violence, usually concerning a female victim to violence performed by a male who is in close relationship to the victim (intimate partner violence, IPV), where there existed a granted (or not granted) RO. The regulation in question has been submitted to quite extensive criticism, mostly from representatives from the movement of the rights of victims. Several reports from the national council of crime prevention (NCCP, Brå) have come up with the conclusion that improvements could have been done. This thesis has the overall purpose of providing a demonstration of the contact prohibit act, as well as to illustrate some of the more problematic aspects, and also to review the criticism regarding the regulation as well as its enforcement and practice. This thesis also wishes to portray the parties, which constitutes these cases. The aim of this thesis is further to provide answers to questions such as if there is reason for the criticism, and also if stated inadequacies regarding the regulation and its enforcement can be explained and then possibly repaired. The questions thus have the aim of examining and giving an insight in some of the difficulties which shape these cases: partially based on the fact that the regulation from the start created high expectations regarding its effects from a victim perspective. 

Among the conclusions can be found the fact that the regulation seems to have inadequacies, foremost regarding the enforcement, which makes the criticism somehow legitimate. This thesis has also tried to prove that the theory of the ideal victim as well as other theories from a victim perspective are fruitful when to analyze the complex relations in RO cases. The requirements for ROs are strict, and the enforcement of the regulation is restrictive. Science shows support for the fact that the enforcement could be less restrictive. At least it supports an evaluation regarding in which group of offenders the RO proves most efficient, according to the crime prevention purpose, and from studies carried out in the field of IPV and different levels of risk.},
  author       = {Degerhammar, Cecilia},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Om kontaktförbud. En uddlös skyddsåtgärd eller en lagstiftning tyngd av förväntningar?},
  year         = {2014},
}